Chick-fil-A Manager Stops Service To Pray for Employee Having Surgery for Breast Cancer
Chick-fil-A has always been known for its religious spirit, and has never been shy about letting it be known. The company is so serious, it provides its employees time off on Sundays so they can spend time resting and with their family as the Lord intended.
But that spirit doesn’t end there: Chick-fil-A employees and locations are praised on a consistent basis for upholding their values, with countless guests praising their kindness, their willingness to go the extra mile and so much more.
Most recently, a North Carolina Chick-fil-A took time out of a busy day at the restaurant to ask God to watch over a beloved coworker.
The manager of the location asked co-workers and customers to join him in prayer.
Ms. Trish, a team member at the location, needed some support, as she was undergoing surgery for breast cancer at that very moment.
When the manager asked everyone inside the restaurant to take part in the prayer for Ms. Trish if they wanted to, customers that filled the restaurant didn’t hesitate to do so.
The manager humbly remarked that he wasn’t the best at praying aloud, but he was going to do his best.
“Dear Lord, please protect Ms. Trish as she gets her surgery today,” he began.
The restaurant fell silent as customers and employees alike came together to send Ms. Trish the support and light she needed on such a trying day.
The manager at Chick-fil-A showed his appreciation for his coworker and all that she does at the restaurant, and asked God to make sure the surgeons had steady hands and clear minds that day.
“We need her back,” he continued. “She is our light, and she is part of the community here, and everyone loves her so much.”
Everything You Should Know Before Taking Fish Oil Supplements
Fish oil has claimed top-tier supplement status in recent years. The pharmacy aisle darling’s mainstream popularity (it was the most popular natural productused by adults in the United States in 2012) has been buoyed by claims it can nurture everything from your brain function to your heart health. While the product has become haloed in an aura of general well-being, there is still a fair amount of misinformation out there about what exactly fish oil supplements can do for you, so it’s important to dissect what’s real and what’s not.
Perhaps you’re one of the millions of Americans who stocks your medicine cabinet with bottles of fish oil supplements but you’re not quite sure what you’re taking and why, or maybe you’ve yet to hop on the fish oil bandwagon and you’d like to learn more. We spoke to a couple of dietitians about what fish oil supplements are, how they can benefit you, who should take them, and more.
What are fish oil supplements?
Okay, let’s get a little technical for a minute here. Simply put, fish oil supplements are a way to increase your intake of omega-3 fatty acids. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), “Omega-3s are important components of the membranes that surround each cell in your body,” including cells in your eyes and brain, and play many roles in our health, such as supporting functions in the heart, lungs, blood vessels, immune system, and endocrine system. Basically, they’re incredibly important for a healthy human body.
The annoying thing is that our body doesn’t make omega-3s, meaning we have to get them from our diet, certified dietitian-nutritionist Gina Keatley tells Allure. “The issue is that there are only specific foods [like seafood and shellfish] that supply the two essential types of omega-3s," Keatley explains. These two omega-3s are EPA, which stands for eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA, which stands for docosahexaenoic acid.
The third type of omega-3, ALA, alpha-linolenic acid, comes from plant sources, like flaxseed and canola oil. But the conversion rate of ALA into EPA and then DHA is pretty inefficient, according to the NIH. “Therefore, getting EPA and DHA directly from foods and/or dietary supplements is the only practical way to increase levels of these fatty acids in the body.” (Keatley notes there is also less research on ALA.)
For people who don’t eat any (or enough) fish and seafood — the FDA recommends two to three servings or eight to 12 ounces a week — there are fish oil supplements. Fish oil supplements are capsules containing oil derived from the tissue of fatty fish (like salmon, mackerel, or sardines), where high concentrations of EPA and DHA are found.
What are the health benefits of fish oil supplements?
If you took every fish oil headline at its word, then we’d truly have a miracle pill on our hands. In reality, the research is a little all over the place. “The challenge that can come with any supplement is that newer studies may contradict earlier studies on the benefits,” says registered dietitian nutritionist Kristin Kirkpatrick, continuing “[Omega-3s] are a great example of this.”
Take heart health, one of the areas where the most research regarding fish oil has been done. Kirkpatrick says the research is clear that omega-3 fatty acid supplements can help reduce triglycerides, “which can contribute to hardening of the arteries or thickening of the artery walls (atherosclerosis) which increases the risk of stroke, heart attack, and heart disease,” Keatley explains. However, Kirkpatrick also points out that “recent studies have come out questioning the benefit to heart health and reducing the risk of myocardial infarction or heart attack.” In other words, there is good research showing these supplements can reduce your triglyceride levels, but whether or not they ultimately lowers your risk of negative health events is debatable.
Another commonly touted benefit is an anti-inflammatory impact, an area where Kirkpatrick sees some of the most convincing evidence. Inflammation in the body is linked to a number of illnesses and poor health outcomes, including heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Studies demonstrate that omega-3s help reduce inflammation on a cellular level. Teasing out how that effect enacts itself in the body is trickier. According to the NIH, clinical trials suggest fish oil can help people manage their rheumatoid arthritis — by, say, decreasing their need for pain meds — when taken along with their regular medications.
There are a few more inflammation- and aging-related conditions that some research suggests could be helped by fish oil supplements, maybe most notably age-related macular degeneration, according to Keatley. Studies show people who get a lot of omega-3s in their diet may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration in the first place — although supplements are not shown to slow it down once it starts, according to the NIH.
When it comes to brain health, especially in aging adults, the evidence is promising but again disappointingly spare. “Some people believe that fish oil supplements can improve memory as well as prevent brain or nervous-system related issues such as Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis, but the research is not clear on these ailments,” Keatley says. However, some studies have suggested that omega-3 consumption lowers your risk of developing cognitive function issues like Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.
Who should be taking fish oil?
If you are vegetarian or vegan or you just don't like eating seafood, then you may be lacking in omega-3s and could stand to benefit more than most. (Kirkpatrick notes that for strict vegans, there are plant-based sources of omega-3s derived from things like algae.) Pregnant and breastfeeding women might also want to consider supplements if they are not eating at least the recommended 2 to 3 servings a week. Kirkpatrick says that these fatty acids are essential to the healthy brain development of babies.
“EPA and DHA are important for the normal development of the brain, eyes, and nerves in children under two years old,” Keatley explains. While the NIHsays it is unclear if supplementation during pregnancy and breastfeeding has any effect on children’s development, it also says that, “some studies show that taking these supplements may slightly increase a baby’s weight at birth and the length of time the baby is in the womb.”
If I eat fish regularly, do I need fish oil supplements?
No, not necessarily, says Keatley. “If you are eating at least 250 to 500 mg of combined EPA and DHA each day via fish and shellfish, then you're in the clear,” she explains. Further, she adds that you should avoid taking supplements unless they're prescribed by your physician.
In fact, making fish a regular part of your diet is actually preferable to taking supplements, similarly to how getting vitamin C and fiber from real whole fruit is generally better than taking them in pill form. “I can't speak for all dietitians, but most of those I know are pro-real-food before going down the supplement route,” says Keatley. In fact, Kirkpatrick says she always tries to recommend food over supplementation to her clients.
The idea is that there could be other beneficial nutrients in real fish that you’re missing out on in pill form. For instance, while people who regularly eat fish have a lower risk of developing several chronic diseases, “it is not clear whether these health benefits come from simply eating these foods or from the omega-3s in these foods,” the NIH reasons.
Is there such thing as taking too much fish oil, and are there any side effects?
Actually, yes, although it’s hard to do. “For a healthy person, there is little evidence that overdosing is common,” says Kirkpatrick. If you do go overboard with the fish oil, the side effects are relatively mild. “They include unpleasant taste, bad breath, bad-smelling sweat, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, and diarrhea,” Keatley says. Even if you don’t ingest enough to cause you problems, though, taking excessive amounts of fish oil is likely a waste of money. “The most recent research seems to show that there is a point of diminishing returns where more omega-3s do not provide increased benefits,” Keatley explains. More is not always better.
Is there anyone who shouldn’t be taking fish oil?
Yes. Large doses of omega-3s may cause bleeding for those with an already-elevated risk. “Many older patients on blood thinners should not be put on omega-3 supplementation due to risk of bleeding,” Keatley explains.
Insulin Resistance and a Plant-Based Diet: What You Need to Know
Insulin resistance may or may not be familiar to you but its repercussion certainly is. As a precursor to a disease that up to 40 percent of Americans will develop during their lifetime, chances are that you or someone you love is currently experiencing symptoms related to this issue.
In fact, some estimates suggest that around 100 million people in America are suffering from diabetes and prediabetes. These statistics are sobering but here are some good news: insulin resistance — the biggest risk factor — is treatable and reversible in most cases.
How? You’ve guessed it: a plant-based diet. Recent research has discovered that eating patterns that include plant-based proteins, unrefined carbohydrates, and polyunsaturated fats play a major role in preventing and managing type 2 diabetes.
Want to know more about insulin resistance and how it relates to one of the leading causes of death in America? Read on to find out how you can protect yourself against the disease (hint: delicious recipes from the Food Monster App are involved)!
What Is Insulin Resistance?
As you’re likely aware, our bodies require insulin for carbohydrate (sugar) metabolism. In healthy adults, the hormone is secreted by the pancreas after a meal is eaten in order to signal to our cells that they need to uptake and store the sugar molecules circulating in our bloodstream.
In the case of insulin resistance, cells fail to respond to the insulin secretion sent by the pancreas and don’t absorb the sugar in the bloodstream. As a consequence, the pancreas starts to produce larger and larger amounts of insulin until, overtime, the organ can’t take it anymore or pancreatic cells are damaged. This leads to high blood sugar levels and the eventual development of type 2 diabetes.
Insulin Resistance Vs. Insulin Sensitivity
Insulin sensitivity is the flip side of insulin resistance.
In a healthy body, cells are sensitive to the influx of insulin secreted by our pancreas. In that insulin sensitive state, glucose molecules enter our cells freely and are stored as energy for later use.
While genetic predispositions dictate in part how our bodies metabolize sugar, diet and lifestyle choices can help prevent the development of insulin resistance.
Why a Plant-Based Diet Is the Best Option for Improved Insulin Sensitivity
No surprise, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is healthy for you.
Recent research suggests that a plant-based diet which centers around the consumption of legumes, whole grains, vegetables, nuts and seeds is the number one way to manage your blood sugar.
A few components distinctive of this kind of diet promote insulin sensitivity.
Only found in plant foods, fiber plays an important role in the glucose response after a meal is consumed. Intestinal bacteria in our gut ferment the fiber and produces short-chain fatty acids that mediate insulin signals.
Fiber also promotes insulin sensitivity through its positive effect on satiety. Fiber-rich foods are filling and have a lower caloric density. This helps with maintaining a healthy weight, a key factor in reducing insulin resistance.
Polyphenols, a class of phytochemicals found in foods like greens and berries, have an impact on carbohydrate metabolism.
These antioxidants activate insulin receptors and promote glucose uptake in tissues.
They also reduce inflammation and oxidative stress related to obesity, two aspects that are thought to play a role in insulin resistance.
As a micronutrient, magnesium plays multiple roles in maintaining healthy functions.
Recent studies point out its particular involvement in keeping our glucose levels steady. A diet high in magnesium impacts insulin receptors sensitivity.
Interestingly, this positive effect is magnified in overweight individuals having symptoms of insulin resistance.
New research finds significant link between Omega-3 Index and depression
New research published in the August edition of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology's Heart Failure issue found significant correlations between blood levels of EPA plus DHA omega-3s in "cognitive" (as opposed to "somatic") depression among heart failure subjects. (Cognitive depression would include symptoms like sadness and pessimism, whereas somatic would include manifestations such as fatigue and sleep disturbances.)
This randomized controlled pilot study was designed to investigate the effects of supplemental omega-3s (EPA and DHA) on depressive and psychomotor symptoms in people with chronic heart failure and depression.
The study included 108 subjects who were assigned to one of three groups each taking 2 grams per day of either 1) a 2:1 mg EPA/DHA supplement; 2) a high EPA product; or 3) a placebo. The study lasted 12 weeks with blood testing (i.e., Omega-3 Index, RBC levels of EPA and DHA) completed pre- and post-supplementation.
he Omega-3 Index reached 6.79% in the 2:1 EPA/DHA group, 6.32% in the EPA only group, and 4.61% in the placebo group. In those who were determined to have taken at least 70% of their capsules and finish all testing (n=80), these values were 7.32%, 7.11%, and 4.42%, respectively. This indicates that the dose (and compliance) were both adequate to significantly improve the Omega-3 Index in only three months.
The social functioning sub-score of the SF-36, a short general health survey, was significantly improved on the 2:1 EPA/DHA supplement and tended to improve with the high EPA supplement.
Significant correlations between the Omega-3 Index and measures of cognitive depression where also found. More specifically, a higher Omega-3 Index was related to lower cognitive depression scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), which is the most widely used instrument for detecting depression.
While these findings are of interest, there are a few caveats. First, this was a pilot study, so the p-values weren't adjusted for multiple comparisons, meaning that there is a higher likelihood that these were chance findings, (i.e. 1 of 19 outcomes was different between intervention and placebo arms). Second, possibly because the study was relatively small with limited power, there was no significant effect of either omega-3 formulation on a variety of psychological measurements, in particular on the Hamilton Depression Score (HAM-D). So the primary findings related to correlations between changes in the Omega-3 Index and the BDI-II cognitive depression metric.
Commenting on the treatment vs. prevention dilemma frequently faced by nutritionals like omega-3s was Dr. Bill Harris, one of the study's authors and the co-inventor of the Omega-3 Index test. "This was a study in already depressed individuals, which meant the researchers are looking to high-dose (although it could have been higher) omega-3 supplements to improve depressive symptoms, like a drug," he said.
"Generally, we think of the function of omega-3s as preventative rather than as treatment. If used as treatment, the dose must be fairly high (4 grams is a typical 'drug' dose) and blood levels must be measured," Dr. Harris continued. "In their larger follow-up study, I would recommend they choose just one of the supplements (probably the pure EPA product) and increase the dose and duration of the study." The authors were also exploring a few different supplement options, focusing on recent evidence that EPA might be more effective for treating depression while DHA may be better for general cognition. "From this study, it's not clear to me that one supplement type was better than the other," Dr. Harris said, adding, "However, linking higher blood levels of omega-3s to improved depression symptoms in people with both depression and heart failure is encouraging and hopefully leads to better treatment for their conditions."
How to Fall Asleep at Night With These Easy Methods
The serious consequences of sleep deprivation perennially capture society’s attention. And, as kids head back to school, sleep and a lack of it are of particular concern.
Compared to historical norms, how have our contemporary expectations of sleep changed? What are the effects of inadequate sleep? What can be done to optimize the experience of sleep, especially in the context of insomnia?
I am a clinician and sleep researcher who treats people with sleep problems. I think there is little reason to suspect that our collective sleep needs have dramatically changed in the recent past, rooted as they are in immutable physiological processes. We should, however, be paying attention to our sleep needs, and that isn’t as hard as it sounds.
What Is Sleep Anyway?
From a clinical perspective, sleep is defined as a reversible behavioral state of unresponsiveness and perceptual disengagement from the environment. It is dependent on the balance between sleep drive — the desire for sleep that builds during wakefulness and is linked to the accumulation and clearance of chemicals within the brain like adenosine — and the circadian alerting signal. The circadian rhythm coordinates processes of the body to the environmental patterns of light and darkness. Adequate sleep is and always has been restorative to the body. Giving sleep respect, and preserving it to the benefit of health, has not been so permanent.
Researchers have learned more about sleep in the past 100 years than in all the preceding millennia combined.
The advent of, and inexpensive access to, artificial light no doubt marked a significant shift in this history. Scientific understanding of sleep continues to evolve and remains incomplete.
Nevertheless, it does seem that people are sleeping less now than they have in the past several decades. Recent self-reported national polling among American adults consistently suggests that Americans are not getting adequate sleep. This begs the question: How much sleep do people really need?
Sleep Needs Change Over the Lifespan
The need for sleep changes over the lifespan. Babies need the most sleep.
Sleep needs change over one’s lifetime. Toddlers may require 11 to 14 hours of sleep to feel rested and typically take naps.
Surveys suggest that 35 to 40 percent of the adult population sleeps less than seven to eight hours on weekdays. This self-reported sleep data may overestimatethe objectively measured sleep obtained by up to one hour due to time spent falling or getting back to sleep. We are in trouble.
If someone eats too many calories, or too few, the effects on the body become apparent. Unfortunately, there is no “sleep scale” to step onto to gauge the physical tolls of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation, either from not allotting enough time to get sufficient sleep or due to sleep disorders like insomnia, may have important consequences.
Using a laptop and other digital devices before going to bed can be harmful to your sleep.
How can we avoid the perils of inadequate sleep?
First, prioritize sleep and ensure that you are obtaining sufficient hours to feel rested. Ensure an easy transition to sleep by maintaining an hour to unwind with relaxing activities before going to bed.
Reserve the bedroom as a space for sleep: leave electronic devices elsewhere.
Keep a regular sleep-wake schedule, especially fixing the wake time, including on weekends.
Get 15 to 30 minutes of sunlight upon awakening, or at sunrise.
Always go to bed feeling sleepy, even if that means delaying bedtime a little.
As needed, consider reducing the time in bed if more than 30 minutes is consistently spent awake.
Be physically active.
Moderate the use of alcohol and caffeine.
If these do not work, consider an evaluation by a board-certified sleep physician. Chronic insomnia may respond well to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. This treatment is increasingly accessible via trained therapists, workshops, online courses, and books.
Symptoms such as frequent or early awakenings, excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, witnessed pauses in breathing, frequent peeing at night, night sweats, teeth grinding, and morning headaches may suggest the presence of sleep apnea. A comprehensive evaluation and appropriate testing may lead to an effective treatment.
Sleep should come naturally. It should never become an additional source of stress. Simple adjustments can yield benefits quickly.
Fortunately, the first step to better sleep is recognizing its importance — an objective that has hopefully been achieved. Now, consider making a few changes and, as necessary, access further resources to yield the long-term benefits to health and well-being that only sleep may provide.
New anti-cancer drugs put cancers to sleep—permanently
In a world first, Melbourne scientists have discovered a new type of anti-cancer drug that can put cancer cells into a permanent sleep, without the harmful side-effects caused by conventional cancer therapies.
Published today in the journal Nature, the research reveals the first class of anti-cancer drugs that work by putting the cancer cell to sleep – arresting tumour growth and spread without damaging the cells' DNA.
The new class of drugs could provide an exciting alternative for people with cancer, and has already shown great promise in halting cancer progression in models of blood and liver cancers, as well as in delaying cancer relapse.
Research led by Associate Professor Tim Thomas and Associate Professor Anne Voss from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Professor Jonathan Baell from the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Dr. Brendon Monahan from Cancers Therapeutics CRC investigated whether inhibiting KAT6A and KAT6B could be a new approach to treating cancer.
Associate Professor Thomas said the new class of drugs was the first to target KAT6A and KAT6B proteins. Both are known to play an important role in driving cancer. KAT6A sits at number 12 on the list of genes most commonly amplified in cancers.
"Early on, we discovered that genetically depleting KAT6A quadrupled the life expectancy in animal models of blood cancers called lymphoma. Armed with the knowledge that KAT6A is an important driver of cancer, we began to look for ways of inhibiting the protein to treat cancer," Associate Professor Thomas said.
The compounds had already shown great promise in preclinical testing, he said.
"This new class of anti-cancer drugs was effective in preventing cancer progression in our preclinical cancer models. We are extremely excited about the potential that they hold as an entirely new weapon for fighting cancer.
"The compound was well tolerated in our preclinical models and is very potent against tumour cells, while appearing not to adversely affect healthy cells," Associate Professor Thomas said.
No more DNA damage
The research efforts were almost a decade in the making, requiring strong collaboration between experts in cancer research, medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.
There is a critical difference between this new class of drugs and standard cancer therapies.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by causing irreversible DNA damage. Cancer cells are unable to repair this damage, and die. The downside is that the therapies cannot be targeted only to cancer cells, and cause significant damage to healthy cells as well. This causes well-known short-term side effects, such as nausea, fatigue, hair loss and susceptibility to infection, as well as long-term effects such as infertility and increased risk of other cancers developing.
"Rather than causing potentially dangerous DNA damage, as chemotherapy and radiotherapy do, this new class of anti-cancer drugs simply puts cancer cells into a permanent sleep," Associate Professor Voss said.
"This new class of compounds stops cancer cells dividing by switching off their ability to 'trigger' the start of the cell cycle," she said. "The technical term is cell senescence. The cells are not dead, but they can no longer divide and proliferate. Without this ability, the cancer cells are effectively stopped in their tracks."
Associate Professor Voss said the team believed the drugs might be effective in delaying cancer recurrence.
"There is still a lot of work to be done to get to a point where this drug class could be investigated in human cancer patients," she said. "However our discovery suggests these drugs could be particularly effective as a type of consolidation therapy that delays or prevents relapse after initial treatment."
"The possibility of giving clinicians another tool that they could use to substantially delay cancer recurrence could have a big impact for patients," Associate Professor Voss said.
'Undruggable' no more
Professor Baell said the project was particularly significant because the scientific community had coined the gene family 'undruggable'.
"There were many hurdles to overcome with this project; this compound certainly didn't fall into our laps, requiring dedicated Ph.D. students and NHMRC-supported postdoctoral medicinal chemists to drive the chemistry forward," Professor Baell said. "But with perseverance and commitment, we are excited to have developed a potent, precise and clean compound that appears to be safe and effective in our preclinical models. Our teams are now working on developing this compound into a drug that is appropriate for human trials."
Professor Baell said the project was indebted to funding from the Australian Government and proved that public research could be an effective translational vehicle.
"It can be difficult to secure funding for medicinal chemistry and higher-risk drug discovery projects," he said. "We are grateful to the Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program and National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for the early funding that supported this project."
Dr. Ian Street, chief scientist at Cancer Therapeutics CRC said it had been a great collaboration between the three organisations.
"This has been a very tough nut to crack," Dr. Street said. "There is no doubt that the KAT6 inhibitors have played an important role in elucidating the potential of this new and exciting strategy to treat cancers."
The top anti-aging, nutritionist-recommended foods to add to your diet now
If you've noticed that what you eat affects not only your waistline but also your skin, hair and nails, you are not alone.
There is even a specialty within the nutrition industry for helping people heal themselves from the inside out: Beauty nutrition.
“The most important thing you can do is eat foods that feed your features with optimal nutrition," said Lisa Drayer, a New York City-based registered dietitian nutritionist who specializes in beauty nutrition. “You can use all the moisturizer and makeup you want, but unless your features are getting the nutrients you need, you’re not going to look your best.”
Drayer lays out the best foods to eat to make your skin, hair and nails strong and glowing. “It’s an anti-aging approach to eating,” she said. “You’re not only helping yourself today but for weeks, months and years to come.”
Drayer said you can see expect to see changes in your skin in about a month once you incorporate the right foods into your diet. For hair and nails, it can take a few months to see changes. The life cycles of the skin, hair and nails vary from one month, three months, and six to 12 months, respectively.
Drayer says her clients who upgrade their nutrition walk away with not just better skin, but improved energy and overall health too.
"It's really amazing to see," she said. "As people are increasingly looking for natural ways to age gracefully, the notion of beauty and nutrition together continues to grow and gain in popularity."
What can you eat to improve your skin? Drayer recommends these 10 foods.
Top 10 beauty foods
1. Wild salmon: Omega-3 fatty acids provide moisture to skin and help reduce inflammation, which helps prevent dry scaly skin, redness and acne.
2. Low-fat yogurt: The calcium will give you strong bones, beautiful nails, good posture and a beautiful smile. 3. Oysters: Rich in zinc which helps build collagen and speed up skin renewal. 4. Blueberries: Antioxidants in blueberries help prevent long-term cell damage and aging.
5. Kiwi fruit: The potassium and vitamin C promote glowing skin. 6. Sweet potatoes: Rich in beta-carotene which keeps skin soft and smooth. 7. Spinach: The beta-carotene and lutein in spinach helps protect eyes, keeping them healthy and bright. 8. Tomatoes: The lycopene in tomatoes can help protect against sunburn. 9. Walnuts: Omega-3's in walnuts can help fight psoriasis and eczema. 10. Dark chocolate: Choose chocolate with at least 60 percent cocoa to get the antioxidants and beneficial nutrients that help boost hydration, skin smoothness and protect against sun exposure.
Getting enough vitamin D? You need far less sun than you might think
The summer weather has surprised us and made getting your daily dose of vitamin D that much easier. But the sunny weather always prompts questions about how to enjoy it safely.
Most people know there's a balance to be struck when it comes to spending time out in the sun. Its UV rays that are the main cause of skin cancer, but we also need some sunshine to generate vitamin D.
Although the number of children getting rickets from low vitamin D levels is still relatively small, in recent years it has increased slightly, suggesting some people may not be spending enough time outside. But skin cancer is also on the increase, for example almost 16,000 people are diagnosed with melanoma every year.
The amount of sun you need to generate enough vitamin D varies depending on your skin. But it has been unclear how long people might need to spend in the sun to generate enough vitamin D while minimising their skin cancer risk.
That's where research from Professor Lesley Rhodes, at the University of Manchester, comes in.
Is there a safe level of sun exposure?
In an in-depth Cancer Research UK-funded study, Rhodes and her team looked at the impact of exposing 39 people of different skin types to low levels of UV. Would that be enough to generate vitamin D? And will this cause DNA damage in their cells that could lead to skin cancer?
Unlike previous studies, Rhodes gave participants UV doses related to their burning risk.
As the dose of UV increased towards their individual burning level, there was an increase in both vitamin D levels and DNA damage seen in skin samples. For all skin types these factors seem to be completely intertwined.
What about different skin types?
One motivation for Rhodes is understanding more about difference between skin types. "Quite a lot of information has been gathered on white-skinned people, but there's been very little for people with darker skin. We needed to firm up our knowledge by looking at the major benefit and the major harm of sunlight at the same time in each person."
Interestingly, the findings differed by skin type when the researchers looked at the lower layer of the skin, where damage is most dangerous. For darker skin types DNA damage wasn't detected at this lower level, it was mostly at the surface. In lighter skin types DNA damage was found throughout the layers, meaning there was more potentially dangerous damage lower down.
"This was a really novel discovery, that the darker the skin colour the closer the DNA damage was to the surface" says Rhodes.
Regardless of dose or skin type, the DNA damage was no longer present 48 hours later. Our bodies can deal with some level of DNA damage and the level of damage in the study seemed to be low enough to be cleared shortly after. Although this is reassuring, the study can't rule out the possibility that damage like this could go on to cause problems. And Rhodes is keen to study this more in the future.
What does this mean for people?
The findings suggest there's DNA damage happening before skin burns and that it may be more likely to lead to problems in lighter skin types than darker ones. Larger studies will be needed to confirm those results.
"People with darker skin can be encouraged to expose their skin to the sun, without burning, to get vitamin D with very low risk of skin cancer," says Rhodes. "However, for people with lighter skin who are easy burners we've shown even very low doses of UV radiation, down to one fifth of their sunburn threshold, can unfortunately damage the cells in lower layers of the skin."
There may not be a totally safe level of exposure to the sun when it comes to DNA damage and skin cancer risk, but we also need some sunshine to make vitamin D. Rhodes' next question was how long do we need to spend in the sun to make enough?
Minutes not hours
"We wanted to define a fairly straight-forward formula for how much sunlight people would need in the UK to get enough vitamin D," says Rhodes. "People are always asking 'how much?', but it's not quite as simple as just talking about minutes, you also need to look at what area of skin you need to expose and at what time of day."
To do this, she teamed up with Professor Ann Webb, a physicist with expertise in the atmosphere and sunlight. Together, they modelled the level needed by the end of summer for most people to have enough vitamin D throughout winter, when the sun isn't strong enough for us to make vitamin D in the UK.
They estimated that 9 minutes of lunchtime sunlight each day would be enough for Caucasians to stay above the 'deficient' category of vitamin D level throughout the year. This figure assumes that people would be in shorts and t-shirts for June to August, while only having their hands and faces exposed from March to June and for September.
Our bodies start to break down vitamin D when we're generating a lot of it so you can't do a week all in one go. Little and often does seem to be the key.
With the same conditions, even people with darker brown skin that hardly ever burns and easily tans – such as people of South Asian origin –and may only need 25 minutes.
Obese people can reduce risk of atrial fibrillation with exercise
Atrial fibrillation is an irregular and often rapid heart rate that can increase the risk of stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications. It's more common in older people, and as it happens, in obese people.
But new research suggest that exercise can have a moderating effect on the risk of developing this problem.
"The risk of atrial fibrillation was lower the more physically active a person was. This turned out to be especially true for people with obesity," says Lars Elnan Garnvik, a Ph.D. candidate at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Cardiac Exercise Research Group.
Garnvik has just published his results in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.
Risk doubles for inactive obese individuals
Atrial fibrillation is the most common form of heart fibrillation, and more than 100,000 Norwegians have the disease. Primarily older people are affected, and given the aging population, twice as many Norwegians as today may well have atrial fibrillation in a few decades.
Obesity is also a well-known risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Garnvik's study showed that people with a BMI greater than 30 have a significantly higher risk than normal weight individuals. It turns out that the activity level of obese participants plays an important role.
"People who reported that they didn't exercise at all had about double the risk of developing fibrillations, when compared to those who were physically active whose body weight was normal," Garnvik said. "However, people who were obese but who exercised a lot limited the increase in risk to no more than approximately 50 percent. This suggests that physical activity is good for limiting the increased risk of atrial fibrillation in obese people."
Why is exercise protective?
Garnvik emphasizes that the study can't guarantee that physical activity is actually the factor that protects against atrial fibrillation. However, the analysis takes into account several other factors that could potentially explain the link. These factors include smoking, alcohol use and previous cardiovascular disease. Garnvik also provides several possible explanations as to why exercise can counteract atrial fibrillation in obese people.
"Physical activity and exercise reduce a lot of the known risk factors for atrial fibrillation, like high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high cholesterol and chronic inflammation. Physical activity can also improve a person's fitness level, and we know that people in good shape have a reduced risk of heart failure," says the Ph.D. candidate.
More than 43,000 participants
The study is based on information from 43,602 men and women who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT Study) between 2006 and 2008. Nearly 1500 of them developed atrial fibrillation by the end of 2015.
"One strength of our study is that doctors confirmed the participants' atrial fibrillation diagnosis, and unlike many previous studies, we didn't solely rely on the participants themselves telling us they had the condition," says Garnvik.
Several well-known athletes have had episodes of atrial fibrillation, and some have suggested that exercise can increase the risk. But that's a qualified truth, Garnvik said.
"Athletes and others who've built up a lot of stamina over many years may have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. But both our study and many others show that physical activity is healthy in the amounts that are relevant for most people. This is also true when we talk about the danger of atrial fibrillation," he says.
This is the Best Dose of Exercise to Add 10 Years to Your Life
When it comes to exercise, one of the most common questions asked is, “Am I doing enough?”
There is no denying that regular exercise paired with a good diet can help fend off illness and disease in your old age. But how many extra years do all those runs and trips to the gym actually earn you? The Westmead Institutefor Medical Research interviewed 1,500 Australian adults over 50 and followed them for a decade. The results, published in Nature, revealed that those who did more than roughly 10 hours of moderately intense exercise a week, could survive an extra 10 years free from chronic diseases. According to the research, fitness fanatics who engaged in the highest levels of physical activity were twice as likely to avoid stroke, heart disease, angina, cancer and diabetes, compared with those who do no exercise. The high-exercise individuals were also in optimal physical and mental shape 10 years later. Lead researcher, associate professor Bamini Gopinath from the University of Sydney, said the data showed that adults who did more than 5,000 metabolic equivalent minutes (MET minutes) a week, which is about 10 hours, saw the greatest reduction in the risk of chronic disease.
“Essentially we found that older adults who did the most exercise were twice as likely to be disease-free and fully functional,” she said.
“Our study showed that high levels of physical activity increase the likelihood of surviving an extra 10 years free from chronic diseases, mental impairment and disability.”
Currently, the World Health Organisation recommends at least 600 MET minutes of physical activity each week. That is equivalent to 150 minutes of brisk walking or 75 minutes of running.
But the Westmead Institute’s findings suggest that physical activity levels need to be several times higher to significantly reduce the risk of chronic disease.
“Some older adults may not be able to engage in vigorous activity or high levels of physical activity,” Gopinath said.
“But we encourage older adults who are inactive to do some physical activity, and those who currently only engage in moderate exercise to incorporate more vigorous activity where possible.”
If pounding the pavement each week does not sound enticing, weight training and cardio exercises are other options with equal benefits.
According to an exercise list from Harvard Medical School, a 60-minute strength training session burns an average of 266 calories per hour for a 185-pound person.
Lucky Scalone, a personal trainer and owner of Bodyline Fitness studio in Sydney, who has more than 30 clients aged 45 to 60, mixes 35-minute weights sessions (five exercises) with 20 minutes of high-intensity cardio — depending on each client’s limit.
“Many of them came to me overweight, had complained about lower back problems and other aches and pains, fatigue (broken sleep) and poor diet,” Scalone said.
“Through changing and coaching them on proper eating habits and introducing regular exercise, they say it has reduced a lot of those aches and pains, while feeling more energized and in control of their health.”
Lowering blood pressure cuts risk of memory decline: U.S. study
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Aggressively lowering blood pressure significantly reduced the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia among hypertension patients in a large government-backed clinical trial, U.S. researchers said on Wednesday.
The results, presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference in Chicago, offer some of the first tangible steps individuals can take to reduce their risk for dementia, experts said.
The results come from a landmark 2015 trial dubbed SPRINT involving of more than 9,300 hypertension patients which showed significant cardiovascular benefits in people whose systolic blood pressure - the top number in a blood pressure reading - was lowered aggressively to below 120, compared to a higher target of under 140.
The Sprint MIND study looked specifically at the implications of aggressive blood pressure lowering on symptoms of dementia from any cause, and mild cognitive impairment, or MCI, a precursor to dementia.
It found that people whose blood pressure was lowered to below 120 had a 19 percent lower rate of new cases of mild cognitive impairment and a 15 percent reduction in MCI and dementia combined.
The takeaway of the study, said Dr. Keith Fargo, director of scientific and outreach programs at the Alzheimer's Association, is "see your doctor and know your numbers," and if individuals have hypertension, get it treated.
"Not only do we already know that it reduces the risk for death due to stroke and heart attacks but we now know it supports healthy brain aging," he said in an interview.
Although the study showed effects on MCI and combined dementia plus MCI, it did not show an overall reduction in dementia alone, at least not yet.
Fargo said it takes longer for people to develop dementia, but as the study continues, he expects more people treated to the higher target of 140 will develop dementia.
"Since it's too early, too few people have developed dementia," he said.
The study looked at all causes of dementia, including Alzheimer's, the most common form marked by clumps of amyloid in the brain, and vascular dementia, which is caused by blocked blood flow to the brain.
Fargo said the result most likely affects the impact of blood pressure lowering on vascular dementia but noted that many people with Alzheimer's also have some degree of vascular disease, and reducing the total dementia risk could delay the onset of memory problems.
High-protein diets are trendy, but how much protein do you really need?
High-protein diets are all the rage. Look on grocery shelves and you will probably find protein bars, protein powder or other foods with labels proclaiming it is "high-protein." But what exactly does protein do for your body and how much of it do you really need? Joey Thurman, a Chicago-based celebrity trainer and certified fitness nutrition specialist, is here with everything you need to know about protein.
What is protein's role in the body?
You need protein for just about every function in your body, from brain cell communications to building and repairing muscle.
Protein is key in our bodies by providing structure and strength to our cells and tissues, controlling biochemical reactions to helping our immune systems. Our metabolism is regulated by proteins as well as hormones and the many things they control. Proteins also help cell division which will help with replenishing aged or damaged cells to provide a constant supply of healthy cells.
How much protein do I need?
Protein needs vary based on activity level and gender. In general, men weigh more than women and require more calories to maintain weight, so basic protein requirements for men are higher. But everyone is different and you can calculate your own needs based on your weight and activity level.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance, or RDA, which describes the minimum amount of a nutrient recommended for health, for protein is .36 grams per day, per pound of body weight.
o if you weigh 150 pounds and work in a desk job, which is considered sedentary, that’s about 54 grams of protein per day. That translates to 216 calories, or 10 percent of a 2,000-calorie daily diet.
To calculate how many grams of protein you need each day, just multiply your weight in pounds by .36.
Women who are pregnant or nursing and people with kidney or liver disease may have different protein needs and should, as always, consult with their doctors.
Do I need more protein as I get older?
Protein requirements don’t change much based on your age, but there is increasing evidence that we may need more protein as we get older to prevent muscle and bone loss, accompanied by a weight-bearing exercise program.
A 2015 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed evidence that adults over 50 should aim for about double the RDA amount, so around .68 grams of protein per pound.
What if I exercise?
If you are more active, these requirements will need to be higher as your body will need to build and repair your muscle tissue to make up for the stress of activity to your body.
If you are very active and get at least 35 to 40 minutes of exercise four to five days a week, including resistance training twice a week, you should bump up your protein intake to .5 to .9 grams per pound of body weight per day.
There are exceptions to this rule, like professional athletes and bodybuilders, who will need to go higher than these levels to upwards of two grams of protein per pound, but use these as a general guideline.
What are the best sources of protein?
Now that you have figured out how much protein you need, where should you get it from?
Protein can come from many sources and you should try to choose several sources to get a variety of nutrients. A common misconception is that people need to only eat animal products to get protein.
There is protein in all sorts of plants, even things that are green. In fact, you tend to get a high protein/calorie ratio in plant-based proteins over meat equivalents. Yet another reason to try a Meatless Monday
, or even add more days with alternatives to meat proteins.
It is important to eat healthy protein-rich foods, including fish. A six-ounce serving of wild salmon has 34 grams of protein and only 1.7 grams of saturated fat.
The Many Benefits of Cherries for Your Heart Health, Weight, and More!
If life’s a bowl of cherries, then you’re in good shape – at least when it comes to taking care of your heart and warding off those aches and pains. Both dark and sweet cherries offer a large amount of sweet flavor, antioxidants and are a good source of fiber. They’re also a healthier choice of sugar than refined sweeteners and processed foods. If you’ve ever had the luxury of eating a cherry straight off the tree, you know there’s nothing like a fresh cherry’s flavor, however, you can still buy frozen cherries and fresh from the supermarket when they’re in season during the early spring and summer.
Cherries for Your Heart
Though berries are a great sources of antioxidants that ward off heart disease; cherries also offer a high dose of anthocyanins that lower cholesterol and reduce inflammation. These antioxidants are evident by the rich hue of color found in cherries, which is a key sign they’re incredible for you. In fact, studies show that tart cherries lower high cholesterol and triglycerides, which can do everything from improving your weight to improve your arterial health. This also reduces your risk of stroke, heart disease, and diabetes. Dark, sweet cherries also come with these same benefits, though tart cherries are said to be slightly more beneficial. Cherries’ antioxidant content is so high, they’re even higher in these specific antioxidants than red wine or dark chocolate!
Cherries also fight oxidative stress that can cause muscle and joint pain. Cherries are also one of the most recommended foods for those with exercise-related muscle pain. Use a few cherries in your post-workout smoothie or use them as a form of a healthy dessert. You can also eat them for breakfast if you wake up sore in the mornings after a hard workout or strenuous day.
Cherries and Your Sleep
Cherries are also one of the best foods to promote melatonin production in the body. This hormone is necessary for not just sending you to sleep, but also helping you stay asleep and wake up around the same time each day. It helps to set your internal clock so that your sleep health becomes more regulated. A good night’s rest isn’t just important for your busy days, but also so your body can recover properly overnight, and to prevent excess cortisol (stress) that can lead to heart disease, weight gain, and even muscle and joint pain.
Cherries and Your Weight
Cherries have also been shown to reduce belly fat due to the way they lower inflammation, reduce stress, improve cholesterol levels, and aid in helping you achieve a healthy sleep cycle. Their specific antioxidant compounds are also directly linked to a lower waistline. Though tart cherry juice and dried cherries are often recommended, be sure to choose whole food cherries when you can, since dried and juice forms are always higher in sugar. Go for the whole, natural fruit the way nature created it whenever possible!
Cherries and Your Blood Sugar
Despite being higher in sugar than fruits like fresh cranberries or raspberries, whole (especially tart) cherries are really very low on the glycemic index. They’ve been shown to improve blood sugar for those with diabetes, and can be eaten with whole grains or nuts and seeds to lower the glycemic spike even more.
Benefits of Nutritional Yeast for Your Blood Sugar
Nutritional yeast is perhaps one of the most life-changing foods for plant-based eaters. These affordable, easy-to-use flakes can be sprinkled on anything to produce an authentic cheese flavor without the need for any processed vegan cheese alternatives. It might not melt the same way on a pizza, but it will produce a cheese flavor so amazing, you won’t even care. Its commonly used in everything from salads, to wraps, sandwiches, sauces, dressings, burgers, sprinkled on fries before baking, mixed into salsa for a vegan queso dip, sprinkled on roasted veggies, used in hummus, and just about any other way you can think of.
But nutritional yeast isn’t just beneficial for flavoring your food. While it’s definitely an all-star in that department, it’s also one incredibly healthy food for anyone, especially those on a plant-based diet or those with testy blood sugar levels.
First though: What are the requirements for healthy blood sugar levels? Eating enough fresh food, low-glycemic foods, eating regular meals, getting adequate anti-inflammatory proteins in the diet, and consuming a little fat throughout the day are all crucial for taking care of your blood sugar.
These are the main principles that will help prevent those blood sugar swings, intense sugar cravings, and prevent symptoms associated with blood sugar imbalances such as moodiness, anxiety, fatigue, and headaches. However, you also need to focus on specific nutrients to take care of your blood sugar too.
Most nutrients needed for healthy blood sugar levels are found abundantly in normal, everyday plant-based ingredients. A few others, such as nutritional yeast, also happen to contain the right nutrients, all in just a couple tablespoon servings.
Check out what nutritional yeast can do for you besides satisfy those cheesy cravings:
1. Complete Protein Source
Amino acids are said to be the building blocks of life; they form proteins in our body that support nearly every single aspect of our mental health and metabolism. Amino acids also help work with blood glucose levels to prevent blood sugar swings and can help the carbohydrates we eat digest more slowly when we combine protein with carbohydrates in a meal. Nutritional yeast is not only a great source of amino acids, but also a complete protein source. It contains all the essential amino acids that the body can not produce on its own, along with all the amino acids that the body can produce on its own. Nutritional yeast boasts a whopping 8 grams of protein in 2 tablespoons, which is the same amount found in 1/2 cup of most types of beans and legumes! It’s also only 45 calories per 2 tablespoons, making it one of the lowest calorie sources of protein out there.
Fiber is another helpful nutrient that slows down the absorption of natural sugars from our food into the bloodstream. In the meantime, it also sweeps out harmful fats and cholesterol, along with toxins in our bloodstream that keep our hearts healthy too. Nutritional yeast contains 4 grams of fiber in just 2 tablespoons, which is equivalent to 1/3 cup oatmeal, 1/2 cup broccoli, and 1 1/4 cup cooked kale. Not too shabby, right? You should be sure to still eat your vegetables too, of course, since we need between a minimum of 25-30 grams a day to stay healthy.
B vitamins not only help our bodies use carbohydrates for energy, but they also help prevent blood sugar swings as a result. One of the most well-known benefits of nutritional yeast is its wealthy stores of B vitamins. Two tablespoons of nutritional yeast contains: 9.6 milligrams of Thiamin (640 percent) , 9.7 milligrams of Riboflavin (570 percent), 56 milligrams of Niacin (280 percent), 9.6 milligrams of Vitamin B6 (480 percent), 240 micrograms of Folate (60 percent), 1 milligrams of Pantheonic Acid (10 percent), and 7.8 micrograms of Vitamin B12 (130 percent). This should come as no surprise, since all soil-based yeasts (versus air-born yeasts) are rich sources of natural B vitamins since they are grown on B-rich bacteria within the soil (such as Vitamin B12). Please be warned, however, you should not look to obtain your Vitamin B12 from nutritional yeast alone. Everyone should be taking a sublingual or liquid form of vitamin B12, which your body absorbs more easily since these enter the bloodstream directly and don’t have to go through digestion first. However, it’s a smart choice to eat as many other B vitamins as you can instead of relying on lots of supplements to give you what you need. See more sources of food-based B vitamins here if you’d like to see just how easy that really is!
5. Low Glycemic
Finally, nutritional yeast contains no added sugars and is a very low carbohydrate food. It contains 5 grams of carbs, 4 of which are fiber (which has no negative impact on blood sugar levels and leaves the body undigested). Low glycemic foods are important to manage blood sugar since the body can only use so much of one nutrient at any given time. What it can’t use ends up remaining in the bloodstream and cause the pancreas to produce too much insulin as result to try and get rid of those glucose stores. This is essentially what leads to blood highs and lows, though skipping meals, and eating unhealthy foods can also cause these issues. To best manage your blood sugar, eat a variety of whole food, fiber-rich, plant-based foods and leave processed foods out of the equation as much as possible.
10 Magnesium-Rich Foods for a Healthier Heart
Magnesium tends to get overlooked when the spotlight shines on better-known minerals such as calcium and potassium, but it plays a crucial role in keeping your heart, muscles, and bones healthy and strong! It is one of the body’s most important electrolytes and has been proven to help with insomnia, depression, migraines, and more.
Check out this article to learn even more about the importance of magnesium. Here are 10 magnesium-rich foods that you should include in your diet on a regular basis, along with several delicious recipe ideas.
This ubiquitous breakfast staple is a superstar in more ways than one, despite its humble-looking appearance. Oats come in multiple varieties depending on how processed they are: oat bran, steel-cut, Scottish, rolled/old-fashioned, and quick-cooking. They are technically gluten-free but are frequently processed in facilities that also manufacture wheat-based products. So if you have celiac disease, or are gluten-intolerant, it’s best to buy oats that are certified gluten-free. Oats (the scientific name being Avena sativa) have been around since the Bronze Age (roughly 2300 BC), and started to be mass-produced in the 18th and 19th centuries.
This versatile green veggie is packed with nutrients, and, when cooked properly (soggy, slimy greens are no fun to eat), can, in fact, be delicious! The spinach plant was first referred to in Sasanian Persia between 226 and 640 A.D., and in 647 was taken from Nepal to China. It later became popular in the Mediterranean and other countries in Europe and Asia. Spinach can be consumed either raw or cooked–some of its nutrients (e.g. vitamin C and potassium) are better absorbed when it is raw, while others (e.g. vitamins A and E) are more available when cooked. As a result, it’s best to have a variety! As with most fruits and veggies, the fresher the spinach, the more nutrients it will contain. So avoid purchasing spinach that is wilted or turning brown.
These small seeds are dense in nutrients and can be purchased already roasted and seasoned, or you can choose to indulge in the messy–yet highly satisfying–process of scooping the flesh out from a pumpkin and removing/roasting the seeds yourself! Check out this article for more detailed instructions on how to prepare and cook your own pumpkin seeds. Either way, pumpkin seeds are a valuable and healthy addition to your diet, especially if you’re looking to increase your consumption of some vital minerals. A mere 1/4 a cup of pumpkin seeds contains nearly 50% of the RDA for magnesium, as well as high amounts of zinc and omega-3 fatty acids.
These rich and tasty nuts come from a tree that is native to Brazil and produces red and yellow “pseudo-fruits” on which the cashew nut attaches. The nut is surrounded by a double shell that in fact contains toxic and corrosive ingredients (including urushiol, found in poison ivy). However, once cashews are roasted and heated, they are perfectly safe to eat, meaning that even cashews labeled “raw” have been heated to some degree.
Due to the toxic ingredients in the shell, it is important to purchase fair-trade certified cashews, as many workers in countries such as India obtain severe burns on their hands from the acid when they are not provided with the proper equipment or protection.
Cashews are rich in healthy fats, copper, and phosphorus, and 1/4 a cup of cashews contains nearly 30% of the RDA of magnesium, making them a nutritious and heart-healthy snack. They are quite versatile and, when soaked overnight, can be used as the basis for many creamy vegan desserts and sauces. For recipe ideas, try these Spicy Golden Turmeric Cashews as a tasty snack, or make some Curried Rice with Raisins and Cashews.
5. Flax Seeds
This nutrient-packed seed originated in Babylon as early as 3000 B.C., and in the 8th century, King Charlemagne required his subjects to consume flaxseed due to his firm belief in the health benefits. Talk about a royal plant! It is best to consume flaxseeds in their ground form (AKA flax meal), as the body does not completely digest whole flax seeds, which prevents you from absorbing all the nutrients.
Turns out dark chocolate isn’t only beneficial for its high levels of antioxidants (and its ability to produce feel-good endorphins)! Although chocolate may seem like a strange addition to this list, what makes chocolate a “junk food” is usually all the additional milk fats and sugar that are added to candy bars and chocolate chips. The cacao tree (Theobroma Cacao) originated in South America and it is from this tree that we harvest the beans that are eventually processed and turned into chocolate. The raw cacao bean is packed with nutrients, including several antioxidants, iron, calcium, and many of the B vitamins.
Dark chocolate retains many of these nutrients since it has a relatively high percentage of cacao and less sugar and fat than milk chocolate. A single square of dark chocolate contains approximately 95 milligrams of dark chocolate, or 24% of the RDA. However, it’s still best to consume dark chocolate in moderation, given that it does contain some processed sugar and fats. Even better, buy some raw cacao powder as well and use that in smoothies or oatmeal to get even more nutrients!
Increased physical activity more important for heart disease patients than weight loss
Increased physical activity, not weight loss, gives individuals with coronary heart disease a longer lease on life, according to a new study conducted at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).
NTNU researchers have found that heart disease patients can gain weight without jeopardizing their health, but sitting in their recliner incurs significant health risks.
Weight loss seems to be associated with increased mortality for the participants in the study who were normal weight at baseline. The survey, which is an observational study based on data from HUNT (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study), was recently published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC).
Researcher Trine Moholdt in NTNU's Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging collaborated on the study with cardiologist Carl J. Lavie at the John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute in New Orleans, and Javaid Nauman at NTNU.
They studied 3307 individuals (1038 women) with coronary heart disease from HUNT. Data from HUNT constitute Norway's largest collection of health information about a population. A total of 120,000 people have consented to making their anonymized health information available for research, and nearly 80,000 individuals have released blood tests.
HUNT patients were examined in 1985, 1996 and 2007, and followed up to the end of 2014. The data from HUNT were compared with data from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry.
During the 30-year period, 1493 of the participants died and 55 per cent of the deaths were due to cardiovascular disease.
"This study is important because we've been able to look at change over time, and not many studies have done that, so I am forever grateful to HUNT and the HUNT participants," said Moholdt.
Exercise and live longer
The study revealed that people who are physically active live longer than those who are not. Sustained physical activity over time was associated with substantially lower mortality risk.
Participants in the study were divided into three categories: inactive; slightly physically active, but below recommended activity level; and physically active at or above recommended activity level.
The recommended activity level is at least 150 minutes per week of moderate physical activity or 60 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity.
A little is better than nothing
The risk of premature death was higher for the group of patients who were completely inactive than for either of the other groups. The prognosis for people who exercise a little bit, even if it is below the recommended level, is better than not exercising at all.
"Even being somewhat active is better than being inactive, but patients have to maintain the activity level. Physical activity is perishable - if you snooze you lose its benefits," Moholdt says.
HUNT participants were asked how hard the exercise activity was for them. Moholdt points out that this is a good way to determine the intensity of the exercise. A half-hour walk can be experienced very differently depending on how fit the person is.
The question then becomes how to translate these findings into practical guidelines.
"The clinical guidelines for heart disease patients currently include having normal weight and being physically active. I would put more emphasis on the exercise aspect. When it comes to physical activity, you have to do what gets you in better shape. That means training with high intensity. Do something that makes you breathe hard, so that it's hard to talk, but not so hard that you can't do it for four to five minutes," says Moholdt. She adds that heart disease patients are often in poor shape, so it often doesn't take much to get into high intensity mode.
Is the Anti-Inflammatory Diet for You? Why You Should Try It & How to Start It
Most of us are always on a mission to find the healthiest way of eating that helps us feel good and live without pain — and the anti-inflammation diet may do just that. You see, chronic inflammation is pretty much the root of almost all our health problems. Arthritis, IBS, asthma, allergies, heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's and even diabetes all come down to inflammation — and can become better or worse depending on what a person is eating, according to Karen Lamphere, MS, CN, a nutritionist based in Edmonds, Washington. Lampere always recommends a diet of anti-inflammatory foods to her clients as a way for them to heal — and the anti-inflammation diet is actually pretty uncomplicated and intuitive.
What is an anti-inflammation diet?
The anti-inflammation diet is comprised of healthy, wholesome, unprocessed foods.
As Lamphere and many other nutritionists have recognized when working with their clients, the phrase "you are what you eat" could not ring truer. The purpose of eating anti-inflammatory foods and removing processed foods from the diet is to calm down inflammation in the body. Research confirms two important things that make the anti-inflammatory diet so critical and so effective for so many people struggling with health issues, as well as those who hope to improve their general health.
First, a 2015 study by the British Journal of Nutrition linked unresolved inflammation to early development of chronic disease. And second — according to University of Alabama at Birmingham Employee Wellness director and adjunct professor of personal health, Lauren Whitt — eating the right foods (namely, anti-inflammatory foods) can help to fight this disease-causing inflammation in the body.
That's where the anti-inflammatory diet comes in, built on basic principles like:
Anti-inflammatory fats are a cornerstone of this diet. Lamphere recommends foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as wild salmon, sardines, herring, anchovies, flaxseed, hempseed and walnuts. In addition, other anti-inflammatory fats include extra-virgin olive oil, avocado oil, flaxseed oil, hempseed oil and walnut oil.
Fruits and vegetables are high in inflammation-reducing antioxidants. "Fruits and vegetables with high antioxidants are important, especially onions, garlic, peppers and dark leafy greens," says Lamphere. She adds, "These are high in inflammation-fighting carotenoids, vitamin K and vitamin E."
Herbs and spices include compounds to fight inflammation. Lamphere explains, "Turmeric, oregano, rosemary, ginger and green tea contain bioflavonoids and polyphenols that reduce inflammation and limit free radical production." She adds, "Some of the most potent anti-inflammatory vegetables are peppers and the spices derived from them, such as cayenne pepper. All chili peppers include capsaicin (the hotter the pepper, the more capsaicin it has), which is a potent inhibitor of substance P, a neuropeptide associated with inflammatory processes."
Some healthy proteins can be anti-inflammatory. "There is a difference in the saturated fat and omega-3 fat content in grain-fed versus grass-fed beef, with the latter being a more healthful choice for an anti-inflammation diet." She adds, "In addition, organic pasteurized eggs have a better anti-inflammatory fatty acid profile than factory-farmed eggs." Choose your proteins wisely and aim to reduce the amount of saturated fat in your diet.
The standard American diet is a culprit in inflammatory conditions.
Unhealthy fats promote inflammation. "Most people eating a Western diet high in processed food or fast food consume a lot of omega-6 fats and not enough of the anti-inflammatory omega-3 fats — and it is this imbalance between the two that promotes inflammation [in the body]."
Omega-6 fats found in corn, safflower, sunflower, peanut and soybean oils. "[These fats] are inflammatory because they are metabolized into hormone-like compounds that actually promote inflammation," says Lamphere. Have you ever wondered why trans fat is unhealthy? Lamphere explains, "Another fat that is highly inflammatory is trans fat. This fat is found in processed or fast foods, especially those that are fried." She warns, "It is best to avoid trans fat entirely."
Refined carbohydrates are pro-inflammatory. Refined flour, sugar and foods high on the glycemic index exacerbate inflammatory conditions. Lamphere warns, "These foods elevate insulin and glucose levels, which raise levels of pro-inflammatory messengers."
Food allergies or sensitivities can play a role in inflammation. "Many people are intolerant to the proteins in wheat and dairy, and this can initiate an inflammatory cascade that starts in the gut but can have far-reaching [systemic] effects," says Lamphere.
How to start an anti-inflammatory diet
Lamphere recommends the anti-inflammatory diet for people with inflammatory conditions as well as healthy people who are looking for a healthy diet. When starting out, Lamphere emphasizes that it is important to reduce your unhealthy fat intake by eliminating oils high in omega-6 while increasing your intake of healthy fats, including more extra-virgin olive oil and omega-3 fatty acids.
Dr. Joe Feuerstein, associate professor of clinical medicine at Columbia University and director of integrative medicine at Stamford Hospital, takes it one step further — he says the easiest way to approach the anti-inflammatory diet is by focusing on what you can have instead of what you can't. In his nutritional work with his patients, where he often incorporates an anti-inflammatory diet, Feuerstein says that it's as easy as using a simple food pyramid.
Here's his approach, from the bottom of the pyramid to the top:
BottomLevel — Enjoy all the colors of the rainbow as veggies or salad, 2 – 3 servings for lunch and 2 – 3 servings for dinner. This is combined with 2 – 3 fruit and berry snacks per day.
Level II — In more limited amounts, enjoy healthy carbohydrates and whole grains, like quinoa, yams, plantains al dente and whole grain pasta.
Level III — Next are nuts and seeds, like almonds as well as hemp, avocado and olive oils.
Level IV — Eat anti-inflammatory proteins moderately, like whole soy, including tofu and tempeh, and cold-water fish, like herring, mackerel, sardines, sockeye or salmon.
Level V — Include small amounts of other proteins, like eggs, skinless poultry, natural cheese or bison.
Top Level — The tip of the pyramid is dark chocolate, green tea, spices and a little red wine.
Researchers use x-ray crystallography to reveal how curcumin inhibits cancer
Through x-ray crystallography and kinase-inhibitor specificity profiling, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers, in collaboration with researchers at Peking University and Zhejiang University, reveal that curcumin, a natural occurring chemical compound found in the spice turmeric, binds to the kinase enzyme dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) at the atomic level. This previously unreported biochemical interaction of curcumin leads to inhibition of DYRK2 that impairs cell proliferation and reduces cancer burden.
But before turning to curcumin or turmeric supplements, Sourav Banerjee, PhD, UC San Diego School of Medicine postdoctoral scholar, cautions that curcumin alone may not be the answer.
"In general, curcumin is expelled from the body quite fast," said Banerjee. "For curcumin to be an effective drug, it needs to be modified to enter the blood stream and stay in the body long enough to target the cancer. Owing to various chemical drawbacks, curcumin on its own may not be sufficient to completely reverse cancer in human patients."
Writing in the July 9 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Banerjee and colleagues report that curcumin binds to and inhibits DYRK2 leading to the impediment of the proteasome -; the cellular protein machinery that destroys unneeded or damaged proteins in cells -; which in turn reduces cancer in mice.
"Although curcumin has been studied for more than 250 years and its anti-cancer properties have been previously reported, no other group has reported a co-crystal structure of curcumin bound to a protein kinase target until now," said Banerjee, first author on the study. "Because of their work on the crystallography, our collaborators at Peking University, Chenggong Ji and Junyu Xiao, helped us to visualize the interaction between curcumin and DYRK2."
"The enzyme kinases IKK and GSK3 were thought to be the prime curcumin-targets that lead to anti-cancer effect but the co-crystal structure of curcumin with DYRK2 along with a 140-panel kinase inhibitor profiling reveal that curcumin binds strongly to the active site of DYRK2, inhibiting it at a level that is 500 times more potent than IKK or GSK3."
Working alongside Jack E. Dixon, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Chemistry and Biochemistry at UC San Diego, Banerjee and team have been looking for regulators of proteasomes to inhibit tumor formation by proteasome-addicted cancers like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and the plasma cell malignancy called multiple myeloma.
Using biochemical, mouse cancer models and cellular models the team found that curcumin is a selective inhibitor of DYRK2 and that this novel molecular target has promising anticancer potential for not only chemo-sensitive but also proteasome inhibitor resistant/adapted cancers.
"Our results reveal an unexpected role of curcumin in DYRK2-proteasome inhibition and provide a proof-of-concept that pharmacological manipulation of proteasome regulators may offer new opportunities for hard-to-treat triple-negative breast cancer and multiple myeloma treatment," said Dixon, who was co-senior author with Zhejiang University's Xing Guo, PhD, on the paper. "Our primary focus is to develop a chemical compound that can target DYRK2 in patients with these cancers." DYRK2 depletion impairs proteasome activity and exhibits slower cancer proliferation rates and significantly reduced tumor burden in mouse models. In combination with the FDA-approved multiple myeloma drug, carfilzomib, curcumin induced a much higher cancer cell death while normal non-cancerous cells were less affected. This suggest that targeting proteasome regulators (such as DYRK2) in combination with proteasome inhibitors may be a promising approach of anticancer therapy with less side-effects but further work is needed, said Banerjee.
Study: Eating Meals Earlier In The Day Can Cut Diabetes Risk And Lower Blood Pressure
In our ongoing dieting dialogue we spend a lot of time talking about what to eat, but what if we’re leaving out something just as important? What if changing when we eat could significantly improve our health? For the first time, a study offers hard data supporting precisely that argument, showing that eating earlier in the day could affect our health as much as what we're eating.
Animal studies have found that time-restricted diets can reduce diabetes risk by stabilizing blood sugar. To see if the same holds true for humans, a research team from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) recruited a group of overweight men, all nearly diabetic, to participate in a controlled 10-week study. Half of the group ate three meals a day within a six-hour period starting around 6:30 am and ending by 3 pm (in effect, they fasted for 18 hours a day). The other half ate three meals during a typical 12-hour day. The groups swapped eating regimens at the end of the first five weeks.
By the end of the study, it was clear that eating within a six-hour window versus a 12-hour window produced three big benefits. First, the participants’ insulin sensitivity increased, resulting in better blood sugar control (insulin is the hormone that keeps blood sugar in check; reduced sensitivity to insulin is a hallmark of prediabetes and diabetes). Their blood pressure also improved as much as if they’d been taking an average dose of blood pressure medication. And their appetite was reduced (a paradoxical outcome considering how many hours a day they weren’t eating, but predictable because their blood sugar had leveled out).
The researchers think that the results come from aligning eating times with natural circadian rhythms.
“If you eat late at night, it’s bad for your metabolism,” said lead study author Courtney Petersen, assistant professor in the UAB Department of Nutrition Sciences. “Our bodies are optimized to do certain things at certain times of the day, and eating in sync with our circadian rhythms seem to improve our health in multiple ways.”
Importantly, the benefits didn’t come from weight loss, because all of the participants ate enough calories to maintain their bodyweight. Rather, the results seemed to come directly from changing when they consumed the same amount of calories.
“Our body’s ability to keep our blood sugar under control is better in the morning than it is in the afternoon and evening,” added Petersen, “so it makes sense to eat most of our food in the morning and early afternoon.”
This was a small study of just eight participants and far from the last word on this topic, but as an initial proof-of-concept, the results are important. As diabetes continues to explode across an increasingly obese population, strategies like shifting eating times to stabilize blood sugar could make a big difference. Same for blood pressure – reducing the amount of medication patients take by changing when they eat is an approach that makes sense.
Having said that, time-restricted diets aren’t easy to follow. Compressing every meal between 6:30 am and 3 pm takes commitment and more than a little willingness to endure stomach grumbles, at least initially before blood sugar spikes level out. We’re accustomed to eating dinner in the 5 - 7 pm window, often followed by a snack or two later at night. Changing that mindset takes work.
Further complicating matters is the growing popularity of fasting diets, mostly unsupported by evidence-based science, but fueled, as all diet fads are, by public demand to conquer our bodies’ worst tendencies. The latest study uses a fasting method (since the participants didn’t eat for 18 hours instead of a typical 10 or 12), but the focus wasn’t on restricting calories via fasting, but rather shifting when they’re eaten.
More research with more participants is needed, no doubt, but these preliminary findings are worth some attention. Food choices matter, but when we consume the food we choose may matter just as much.
The study led by researchers from Peking University Health Science Center was then narrowed down to people who did not have prior cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes.
The results showed people who consumed one egg a day carried a lower risk for cardiovascular disease and strokes compared to those who didn't eat eggs at all.
"Among Chinese adults, a moderate level of egg consumption (up to <1 egg/day) was significantly associated with lower risk of (cardiovascular disease), largely independent of other risk factors," reads an excerpt from the study.
The study didn't explore health risks associated with people who eat more than one egg daily.
Eggs have long received a bad rap over concerns it could boost cholesterol, but have been recommended more frequently by dietary experts for their high protein and other nutrients like Vitamins D and K as well as omega-3 fatty acids.
In 2015, an expert panel advising the federal government on nutrition updated its dietary guidelines to remove daily limits on dietary cholesterol, including eggs, saying dietary sources don't really affect the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
4 Everyday Foods That Can Make Your Cholesterol Levels Skyrocket
According to Mayo Clinic, people with high cholesterol should do their best to consume no more than 200 daily milligrams of dietary cholesterol.
An ounce of full-fat soft cheese adds about 20 extra milligrams to your daily total — and you know you’re going to eat more than an ounce in one sitting. It’s probably better to stay away from it, if you can’t limit your consumption.
There are 10 milligrams of cholesterol per tablespoon of light mayonnaise, even though that fact might surprise you.
If you’re looking for a healthier spread to spice up your sandwiches, go with mashed avocado, hummus, olive oil, or almond butter instead.
Red and processed meats notoriously put people with high cholesterol at higher risk for heart disease. Land animals, however, aren’t the only types you need to watch out for. Three ounces of cooked shrimp almost puts you above your daily limit at 170 milligrams. You might have to cut back on other shellfish as well to avoid raising your LDL levels.
A little bit of red meat every once in awhile isn’t all bad. You don’t have to give it up completely if you have high cholesterol. However, eating it every day might be a bad idea. Three ounces of cooked lean beef steak provides 60 milligrams. If you tend to eat more than that in one sitting, or you grill steak more than a few times per month, you might want to consider cutting back.
A food-poisoning expert reveals 5 things he never orders at restaurants — and it's not what you'd expect
A deep knowledge of thousands of food poisoning cases across the US means that there are some things that Bill Marler just won't order when he goes out to eat. With more than two decades working as a food poisoning advocate and attorney, there are simply some things that Marler has cut out of his diet. Marler has won more than $600 million for clients in foodborne-illness cases — and seen how restaurants are being forced to change to prevent more sicknesses.
"Chain restaurants, post-Jack-in-the-Box, they went through a sort of rethinking about how they do stuff," Marler said.
Today, many of the biggest risk for food poisoning at chain restaurants come from an individual worker who "picked his nose then made your burrito," Marler said. The action of a rogue restaurant worker can make a handful of people sick — but usually won't spark a huge outbreak.
However, there are some foods that Marler avoids when he goes out to eat.
Here are the foods that Marler said scare him the most on the menu:
Your healthy choice is actually one of the riskier options on the menu at chain restaurants.
"I'd eat sushi before I ate a salad," Marler said. "I wouldn't eat it at a 7-11, but I've eaten sushi at a good sushi restaurant."
While cooking veggies and meat can kill germs, salads bring together a lot of raw foods that have had countless opportunities for contamination. Restaurants that buy pre-chopped lettuce from suppliers put themselves at even greater risk.
"Not every lettuce leaf in the field is contaminated E. coli, but some of them are," Marler said of the risks of pre-washed, bagged lettuce. "And when you mix and match it at a processing facility and chop it up, you get what you get."
Soft-serve ice cream
Cleanliness of ice and ice cream machines can cause huge problems when workers aren't following safety guidelines. There's a grossness factor of finding mold in soft-serve ice cream machines — but there are also real risks.
"There have been a number of cases linked to listeria, where listeria will get into the inner workings of these ice cream machines and kill people," Marler said.
Marler agrees with known-germaphobe President Trump on at least one thing: well-cooked meat is the way to go.
"Skip the medium hamburger and get it well done, and just add a little ketchup like the president," he said.
According to the expert, meat needs to be cooked to 160 degrees throughout to kill bacteria that could cause E. coli or salmonella.
"I never eat a buffet," Marler said. "I'll order off the menu."
Buffets have a heightened risk of exposure to the lines of people who might touch or sneeze on food, contaminating the dish for anyone else. Then, there is the temperature issue, as dishes are better able to host bacteria when kept at room temperature
Food shipped internationally
In general, Marler says people can best avoid food poisoning by simply eating food handled by as few people are possible and only eating at restaurants with strict food safety practices. While chain restaurants tend to have strict safety policies, if they serve food from suppliers that got contaminated at some point along the supply chair, there is little they can do. And, those risks are exacerbated in the cases of food that is being imported from a significant geographical distance.
"You can get Hepatitis from scallops from the Philippines, but you probably shouldn't be eating scallops from the Philippines," Marler said. "You can get Hepatitis A from strawberries from Egypt, but you probably shouldn't be getting strawberries from Egypt."
A possible cancer vaccine breakthrough!
A recent Stanford cancer study that cured 97 percent of mice from tumors has now moved on to soliciting human volunteers for a new cutting-edge medical trial.
The trial is part of a gathering wave of research into immunotherapy, a type of treatment that fights cancer by using the body's immune system to attack tumors.
"Getting the immune system to fight cancer is one of the most recent developments in cancer," Dr. Ronald Levy, a Stanford oncology professor who is leading the study, told SFGATE. "People need to know that this is in its early days and we are still looking for safety and looking to make this as good as it can be." he treatment is not a true vaccine that creates lasting immunity, but it does feature a vaccine-like injection carrying two immune stimulators that activate the immune system's T cells to eliminate tumors throughout the body.
Each test subject receives a low dose of radiation plus two rounds of the injected agents, Levy said. No chemotherapy is involved. The treatment does not work on all types of cancer, Levy said, because each type of cancer has a different set of rules regarding how it can be affected by the immune system.
For the current trials, he is only looking for people with low-grade lymphoma regardless if they have been previously treated. He said Stanford is planning on running two trials by the end of the year with a total of about 35 test subjects.
The two drugs we are injecting are made by two different companies and have already been proven safe for people," Levy said. "It's the combination we are testing."
Side effects at this point include fever and soreness at the injection site but no vomiting, Levy said.
He said if the FDA does end up granting final approval, he wouldn't expect it any sooner than a year or two from now.
hile the vaccine approach to cancer is unique, Levy noted that one approved cancer drug for injection already exists for melanoma skin cancer.
Other limited approaches also currently exist in the expanding landscape for cancer immunotherapy. In 2017, the FDA approved a type of cell therapy for some types of leukemia and lymphoma known as CAR-T where a patient's immune cells are removed from the body, genetically engineered and reintroduced to attack the tumor cells.
Dr. Michelle Hermiston directs the pediatric immunotherapy program at UCSF, the first hospital in California to implement the treatment. She told SFGATE that CAR-T is currently being used as a third option for lymphoma and leukemia patients who have failed standard treatments like chemotherapy.
She said CAR-T is both labor intensive and very expensive — drugs alone cost half a million dollars — but that the new immunotherapy treatment has raised survival rates from about 10-15 percent to more than 60 percent.
"The thing to understand is how much of a game changer this is," she said. "If it's your kid, it makes a huge difference."
But CAR-T comes with its fair share of side effects: fever, confusion, organ failure and the chance of permanent loss of one's B cells — responsible for producing antibodies. "It's not a trivial therapy," Hermiston said.
Hermiston said she is very interested in Levy's injection trials as well as other future advances in immunotherapy. One biological area of importance that demands further study, she said, was the difference between "hot" and "cold" tumors with respect to the body's immune system.
She said research has shown that unlike hot tumors, the immune system does not detect cold tumors — often associated with colon cancer. However, sometimes a combination of hot and cold may be at play. One main question, Hermiston said, is whether cold tumors can be transformed into hot tumors so that the immune system can first recognize and then destroy them.
"Can we make the tumor more visible to the immune system?" Hermiston said. "We are at the tip of the iceberg right now."
Levy, along with Stanford instructor of medicine Idit Sagiv-Barfi, published their study on the cancer-curing effect of immunotherapy on January 31 in Science Translational Medicine. Levy is a pioneer in the field of cancer immunotherapy having contributed to the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibodies approved for use as an anti-cancer treatment in humans. In 2009 he received the King Faisal International Prize — often known as the "Arab Nobel Prize"— for this achievement.
"We have a huge problem in cancer and we will never be satisfied until we find solutions for everyone," Levy said.
One type of exercise is the closest thing to a miracle drug that we have — and new research suggests intense workouts aren't the only option
o walk, or to run? That is often the question.
In other words, if you're looking to improve your health, is it better to commit to an occasional all-out sweat fest, or incorporate more walking and moving into your day?
A new study suggests there's an answer to this years-old conundrum: It doesn't matter.
For better health and a reduced risk of death from any cause, any kind of movement is better than little or none. That means that any effort that gets you moving and breathing — whether it's a twice-weekly heart-pounding kickboxing class or a 30-minute walk to work — has measurable benefits for your brain and body.
The authors sorted activity into two categories: total minutes of activity per day, and total minutes of "bouted" — intense or concentrated — activity per day.
To count as a bout, an exercise spell had to last at least five minutes, but one- to two-minute breaks in between were allowed. Examples included workouts like cycling classes, interval training, and marathon training.
The researchers then looked for links among subjects' activity levels, types of activity, and chances of dying at their age from any cause.
You may assume that people with more bouted activity fared better than people who just walked or moved around a lot. But the study found that neither type of activity had a significant edge over the other.
Overall, participants who clocked roughly 30 minutes a day of moderate or vigorous exercise were significantly less likely to die from any cause than people who got none. Those who accumulated an hour or more of movement daily fared even better.
"The key message based on the results presented is that total physical activity (i.e., of any bout duration) provides important health benefits," the authors wrote. The most recent study didn't examine in detail participants' types of activity, but plenty of other research has extolled the benefits of cardio or aerobic workouts, defined as any movement that raises your heart rate and gets you moving and sweating for a sustained period.
Why cardio exercise is so good for the brain and body
Unlike weight or strength training, which involves working specific muscle groups, cardio raises your heart rate, thereby improving heart and lung health.
Cardio workouts have "a unique capacity to exhilarate and relax, to provide stimulation and calm, to counter depression and dissipate stress," an article in a Harvard health blog says.
The reason they lift our spirits seems related to their ability to reduce levels of natural stress hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol, according to a study in the Journal of Physical Therapy Science.
Activities like running and swimming also increase overall blood flow and provide our minds fresh energy and oxygen — another factor that could help us feel better.
So whether you're looking for benefits related to mood, memory, or overall health, the take-home message is clear: The more you move, the healthier you're likely to be.
Gut bacteria determine speed of tumor growth in pancreatic cancer
The population of bacteria in the pancreas increases more than a thousand fold in patients with pancreatic cancer, and becomes dominated by species that prevent the immune system from attacking tumor cells.
These are the findings of a study conducted in mice and in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), a form of cancer that is usually fatal within two years. Led by researchers at NYU School of Medicine, Perlmutter Cancer Center, and NYU College of Dentistry, the study published online March 22 in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
Specifically, the study found that removing bacteria from the gut and pancreas by treating mice with antibiotics slowed cancer growth and reprogrammed immune cellsto again "take notice" of cancer cells. Oral antibiotics also increased roughly threefold the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, a form of immunotherapy that had previously failed in pancreatic cancer clinical trials, to bring about a strong anti-tumor shift in immunity.
Experiments found that in patients with PDA, pathogenic gut bacteria migrate to the pancreas through the pancreatic duct, a tube that normally drains digestive juices from the pancreas into the intestines. Once in the pancreas, this abnormal bacterial mix (microbiome) gives off cellular components that shut down the immune system to promote cancer growth, say the authors.
"While combinations of changes in genes like KRAS cause cells to grow abnormally and form pancreatic tumors, our study shows that bacteria change the immune environment around cancer cells to let them grow faster in some patients than others, despite their having the same genetics," says senior study co-author George Miller, MD, co-leader of the Tumor Immunology Research Program at Perlmutter, the H. Leon Pachter, MD, Professor in the Department of Surgery, and professor of Cell Biology at NYU Langone Health.
"Our results have implications for understanding immune-suppression in pancreatic cancer and its reversal in the clinic," says senior co-author Deepak Saxena, PhD, associate professor of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology at NYU College of Dentistry. "Studies already underway in our labs seek to confirm the bacterial species most able to shut down the immune reaction to cancer cells, setting the stage for new bacteria-based diagnostic tests, combinations of antibiotics and immunotherapies, and perhaps for probiotics that prevent cancer in high-risk patients."
On the one hand, the research team theorizes that changes in the genes that cause abnormal cell growth in the pancreas might also change the immune response in ways that favor the growth of different bacterial species than are found in normal individuals.
Alternatively, environmental factors like diet, other diseases, or common medications might cause bacterial changes in the gut that are reflected in the pancreatic microbiome.
Whatever the cause, the new study found that bacteria that are more abundant in pancreatic cancers - including groups of species called proteobacteria, actinobacteria, and fusobacteria - release cell membrane components (e.g. lipopolysaccharides) and proteins (e.g. flagellins) that shift macrophages, the key immune cells in the pancreas, into immune suppression.
Experiments showed that eliminating bacteria using antibiotics restored the ability of immune cells to recognize cancer cells, slowed pancreatic tumor growth, and reduced the number of cancer cells present (tumor burden) by 50 percent in study mice.
The researchers found that "bad" bacteria in pancreas tumors trigger immune cell "checkpoints" - sensors on immune cells that turn them off when they receive the right signal. These checkpoints normally function to prevent the immune system from attacking the body's own cells, but cancer cells hijack checkpoints to turn off immune responses that would otherwise destroy them. Checkpoint inhibitors are therapeutic antibodies that shut down checkpoint proteins to make tumors "visible" again to the immune system.
"Adding antibiotics improved the performance of a checkpoint inhibitor in a mouse model of PDA, as shown by an increase in T cells that could attack the tumors," says first co-author Mautin Hundeyin, MD, a postdoctoral fellow in Miller's lab. "Our study confirmed that, similar to what has been observed in patients with pancreatic cancer, checkpoint inhibition alone did not protect mice. This may be because, in the immunosuppressive environment of the tumor, there are too few immune cells around to be activated."
As a next step, the research team plans to soon begin recruiting patients into a clinical trial at Perlmutter Cancer Center to test whether a combination of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and metronidazole) can improve the effectiveness of a checkpoint inhibitor (an anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) antibody) in PDA patients.
The link between your gut health and autoimmune diseases
One in five Americans — about 50 million people in the United States — have an autoimmune disease. These include conditions such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis which occur when the immune system begins attacking the body’s own organs, tissues, and cells. Research suggests that these diseases are on the upswing, with reports showing that Type 1 diabetes, lupus, and celiac disease, for example, are being diagnosed more frequently.
Medical experts are still mystified about what exactly causes autoimmune diseases and why some people are more susceptible to them. But now, fascinating new research shows that your gut bacteria — yup, you read that right — may play an important role.
A 2017 study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found that mice carrying a mutated gene that made them more susceptible to autoimmune disorders also showed changes in gut bacteria at around the same time they began to develop autoimmune symptoms. But when researchers gave the mice a probiotic to “reset” their gut, the mice’s digestive systems returned to normal, and they had decreased inflammation and a longer lifespan.
“Eighty percent of your body’s immune system is located in your gut, so if you don’t have a healthy gut, you can’t have a healthy immune system,” Amy Myers, MD, an Austin, Texas, specialist in autoimmune diseases and author of The Autoimmune Solution, points out to Yahoo Lifestyle.
How your gut affects your health
Your gut does more than just digest your food. It’s home to trillions of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that make up your stomach’s microbiome. While some of these bugs are bad, some are also good, helping your gastrointestinal (GI) tract run smoothly by breaking down food, synthesizing vitamins and other nutrients, and helping fight against germs that can cause infections, Shajan Sugandha, MD, a GI specialist at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, tells Yahoo Lifestyle.
When your microbiome is in tiptop shape, your digestion works well. But if it’s thrown off — which can happen due to anything ranging from a poor diet to medications like antibiotics to stress or a bout of the stomach flu — then some undigested toxins and unfriendly bacteria can stray from your GI tract, causing inflammation throughout your body, explains Myers. This may help explain why research is now increasingly linking the microbiome to conditions such as obesity, Parkinson’s disease, and depression. Another theory is that some people’s bodies respond by sending their immune system into overdrive, so that anytime you come into contact with these bad bugs, your immune system fires off a cascade of inflammatory chemicals that cause you to develop chronic inflammation, and in time, an autoimmune disease, notes Myers.
This may be particularly true when it comes to multiple sclerosis, a type of autoimmune condition in which the body begins to attack the central nervous system — the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. This disorder, which affects over two million people worldwide, can be devastating, causing symptoms like trouble walking, muscle weakness, and vision, bowel, and bladder problems. But a University of California, San Francisco study published in 2017 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencessheds new light on the disease. When researchers analyzed the microbiomes of 71 people with MS versus 71 healthy controls, they found that patients with MS had four times the amount of two types of bacteria: Acinetobactercalcoaceticus and Akkermansiamuciniphila. In addition, they had one-quarter of another type of bacteria, Parabacteroidesdistasonis, compared to people without the disease.
Researchers then took the study one step further, injecting gut bacteria from the MS patients into mice and then inducing brain inflammation in mice that received gut bacteria from healthy individuals. Within three weeks, the MS-infused mice had developed much more severe brain inflammation than those given the normal gut bacteria.
In a second German study published in October 2017, also in PNAS, researchers examined 34 pairs of twins in which only one of each had MS. They then took samples of their gut microbes and injected them into mice already predisposed to develop a disease like MS. More of the rodents who got the MS microbiome ended up developing MS-like symptoms, such as brain inflammation, than those who got the healthy microbiome.
Most of this research has been done only in mice, and experts caution that it needs to be replicated in humans before coming to firm conclusions. But, “I think all of these studies lend credence to the belief now that keeping your microbiome healthy, with a diversity of bacteria, is important for overall health, especially if you have a genetic predilection or other risk factors for developing an autoimmune disease,” Daniel Freedberg, MD, a gastroenterologist and assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, tells Yahoo Lifestyle.
How to keep your gut in tiptop shape
The best way to keep your microbiome healthy is through a good diet, says Freedberg. The good bacteria in your gut thrive on high-fiber foods (think: lentils, green peas, and raspberries), as well as fermented foods, such as plain yogurt with active cultures, sauerkraut, miso, and pickled vegetables.
A 2016 study in the journal Science found that plentiful consumption of those foods — as well as, surprisingly, coffee, tea, and wine — helped keep gut bacteria healthy.
Foods high in sugar, on the other hand, such as whole milk and sodas, had the opposite effect. A 2013 Harvard study also found that an animal protein-rich diet filled with meat and cheese dramatically alters your microbiome, and not in a good way: It promotes the rise of certain types of bacteria linked to inflammation.
Certain drugs, such as antibiotics, can also harm your microbiome. These meds kill the good bacteria in your gut along with harmful ones, and your microbiome may not recover for months after a course of antibiotics. That’s one reason why you shouldn’t take those drugs unless you really need them, notes Sugandha. Other drugs that can impact your gut microbiome are medicines that kill off stomach acid, like antacids and protein pump inhibitors, and the diabetes drug metformin.
The research on probiotics is murky, according to Sugandha, and it’s not quite clear yet which strains are best for your microbiome and who might need them. That’s why most doctors recommend trying to get most of your probiotics through food. That said, if you’re on antibiotics or another drug that can kill off stomach bacteria, two types that have the most research behind them are Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (aka LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii. And although probiotics are considered safe for healthy people to take, it’s always best to check with your doctor first.
Fiber supplement increases insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic patients
University at Buffalo researchers have found that taking a fiber supplement can help patients with type 2 diabetes boost their insulin secretion even after eating a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal. The research was presented on March 20 at ENDO 2018, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in Chicago.
The study was led by Paresh Dandona, MD, Ph.D., SUNY Distinguished Professor and chief of the Division of Endocrinology in the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at UB. Dandona, who sees patients at UBMD Internal Medicine, is an expert in diabetes research and treatment, and a pioneer in exploring novel ways that patients with both Type 1 and type 2 diabetes can achieve better blood sugar control.
The current work builds on his team's previous research, published last year in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, showing that adding fiber to the diet after a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal, which is known to increase inflammation, will have beneficial anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects.
"Dietary fiber is known to reduce the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in large epidemiological studies," said Dandona. He noted that his team at UB provided the first mechanistic evidence—meaning evidence aimed at determining a mechanism—at cellular and molecular levels that fiber exerts an anti-inflammatory effect, lowering glucose levels and boosting insulin concentration in normal subjects.
The current study was aimed at finding out how fiber might function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Dandona and his colleagues studied 12 patients at the Clinical Research Center, a part of the UB Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.
Levels of blood sugar, insulin and proteins involved in inflammation were measured in the patients after they consumed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal. The same patients consumed the same meal a week later, but this time they also consumed Fiber One (a commercially available supplement) before and after the meal.
"After eating the meal, diabetics' insulin secretion increased significantly after the fiber. However, this increase wasn't sufficient to reduce their glucose levels," said Dandona.
The fiber supplement also resulted in suppressing comprehensively inflammation and oxidative stress in these patients.
"An increase in dietary content of fiber, whether through food or a supplement, should be encouraged in order to reduce oxidative and inflammatory stress and hence, a tendency to induce insulin resistance," said Dandona.
The Health Benefits of Intermittent Fasting
Intermittent fasting was one of the most talked-about diet trends in 2017, and now new research from the University of Surrey suggests that following such a diet could have real health benefits.
In a study published in the British Journal of Nutrition, researchers assigned 27 overweight participants to either the 5:2 diet or a daily calorie-restriction diet, and told to them to lose 5% of their weight.
The study aimed to look at the effects of the 5:2 on the body's ability to metabolize fat and glucose following a meal and compared it to the effects of weight loss achieved by a daily calorie-restriction diet.
The participants on the 5:2 followed the regime of eating normally for five days and restricting their calories to 600 calories on their two "fasting days."
Meanwhile those on the daily diet were required to eat 600 calories less each day than their estimated requirements for weight maintenance — women ate about 1,400 calories and men ate about 1,900 calories a day.
It's important to note the study was relatively small and that 20% of each participant group dropped out because they either "could not tolerate the diet or were unable to attain their 5% weight loss target."
However, of the participants who did complete the experiment, those on the 5:2 reached their goal of 5% weight loss in 59 days compared to those on the daily calorie-restriction diet who achieved it in 73 days.
The researchers found that those on the 5:2 cleared the fat (triglyceride) from the blood after meals quicker than those on the daily calorie-restriction diets.
They found no differences in the handling of glucose, but said they were "surprised to find variations between the diets in C-peptide (a marker of insulin secretion from the pancreas) following the meal, the significance of which will need further investigation."
Retinal patch with stem cells treats macular degeneration
March 19 (UPI) -- Researchers in California have developed a retinal patch with stem cells to improve the vision of people with age-related macular degeneration.
In a clinical trial, researchers at the University of California Santa Barbara implanted the stem cell-derived ocular cells in two patients over the course of 12 months, publishing the results of the study Monday in the journal in Nature Biotechnology.
Macular degeneration, which affects the central, or reading, vision while leaving the surrounding vision normal, usually affects people over 50 years of age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1.8 million Americans aged 40 years and older have AMD, and it's the leading cause of permanent impairment of close-up vision among people aged 65 years and older.
People usually start with dry macular degeneration, which causes blurred or reduced central vision because of thinning of the macula. The dry condition, which accounts for 70 percent to 90 percent of all cases, can develop into the wet type, which is marked by abnormal blood vessels leaking fluid or blood into the region of the macula in the center of the retina.
Researchers hope the new procedure will help treat dry AMD before it progresses to the wet version.
In July 2015, 86-year-old Douglas Waters developed the disease and struggled to see things, even up close.
The researchers implanted a retinal eyepatch, which is composed of retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from stem cells, at Moorfields Eye Hospital, a National Health Service facility in Waters' hometown of London, England. They used microsurgical tools to implant the patch into the subretinal space of one eye.
After the surgery, he said he could read the newspaper with regular reading glasses and help his wife with gardening.
A woman in her early 60s with a severe form of wet AMD and declining vision also had a patch implanted, reporting the same kind of improvement -- she went from not being able to read at all to reading 60 to 80 words per minute with normal glasses.
"This study represents real progress in regenerative medicine and opens the door on new treatment options for people with age-related macular degeneration," Peter Coffey, a professor at UCSB's Neuroscience Research Institute and co-director of the campus's Center for Stem Cell Biology & Engineering, said in a press release.
"We hope this will lead to an affordable 'off-the-shelf' therapy that could be made available to NHS patients within the next five years."
High-energy breakfast promotes weight loss
"This study shows that, in obese insulin-treated type 2 diabetes patients, a diet with three meals per day, consisting of a big breakfast, average lunch and small dinner, had many rapid and positive effects compared to the traditional diet with six small meals evenly distributed throughout the day: better weight loss, less hunger and better diabetes control while using less insulin," said lead study author Daniela Jakubowicz, M.D., professor of medicine at Tel Aviv University.
"The hour of the day—when you eat and how frequently you eat—is more important than what you eat and how many calories you eat," she noted. "Our body metabolism changes throughout the day. A slice of bread consumed at breakfast leads to a lower glucose response and is less fattening than an identical slice of bread consumed in the evening."
Jakubowicz and her colleagues studied 11 women and 18 men who had obesity and type 2 diabetes, being treated with insulin and averaged 69 years of age. The patients were randomly assigned to consume one of two different weight-loss diets, which contained an equal number of daily calories, for three months. One group (Bdiet) ate three meals: a large breakfast, a medium-sized lunch and a small dinner. The second group (6Mdiet) ate the traditional diet for diabetes and weight loss: six small meals evenly spaced throughout the day, including three snacks.
Overall glucose levels and glucose spikes were measured for 14 days at baseline, during the first two weeks on diet, and at the end of the study by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Glucose levels were tested every two weeks and insulin dosage was adjusted as needed.
At three months, while the Bdiet group lost 5 kilograms (11 pounds) the 6Mdiet group gained 1.4 kg (3 lb).
Fasting glucose levels decreased 54 mg/dl (from 161 to 107) in the Bdiet group but only 23 mg/dl (from 164 to 141) in the 6Mdiet group. Overall mean glucose levels dropped in the first 14 days by 29 mg/dl (from 167 to 138 mg/dl) and 38 mg/dl (from 167 to 129 mg/dl) after three months in the Bdiet group. Overall mean glucose levels dropped only 9 mg/dl (from 171 to 162 mg/dl) in the first 14 days and only 17 mg/dl (from 171 to 154 mg/dl) in the 6Mdiet group.
Mean glucose levels during sleep dropped only in the Bdiet group, by 24 mg/dl (from 131 to 107), but not in the 6Mdiet group.
The Bdiet group needed significantly less insulin (-20.5 units/day, from 54.7 to 34.8) while the 6Mdiet group needed more insulin (+2.2 units/day, from 67.8 to 70).
Carbohydrate craving and hunger decreased significantly in Bdiet group but increased in the 6Mdiet group.
Importantly, the researchers found a significant reduction of overall glycemia after as little as 14 days on Bdiet, when the participant had almost the same weight as at baseline. This finding suggests that even before weight loss, the change in the meal timing itself has a quick beneficial effect on glucose balance that is further improved by the important weight loss found in the 3M diet.
"A diet with adequate meal timing and frequency has a pivotal role in glucose control and weight loss," Jakubowicz observed.
The Ministry of Health of Israel supported the study.
Exercise Your Brain to Improve Memory in Retirement
By MARY KANE, Associate Editor March 17, 2018 From Kiplinger's Retirement Report
When retired professor Darlene Howard taught in the psychology department of Georgetown University, she often had to remember the names of as many as 50 students a semester. So Howard used a memory trick: She created an association with a student's name or face. A student with the last name of Brady might make her think of New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady. The next time she saw the student, she would tap that image to remember his name.
If you struggle to recall a word that's on the tip of your tongue, or have trouble putting names to faces, you may think memory decline is a normal part of aging you have to accept. But you can strengthen certain memory skills, and improve your overall brain health and cognitive function. "There are a lot of ways you can facilitate the health of your brain," says Howard, now age 70. "What we need to do is not get worried so much about the fact we're not remembering something, and instead think of ways we can remember it."
Start with techniques to help you improve specific skills. When meeting someone for the first time, repeat the name when introduced, to make sure you've got it, Howard says. Then create an association to help you remember–and practice it. "Even something ridiculous is good, and it will work," Howard says. Take notes on your phone after the introduction to refer to later.
If you can't recall a word, that's generally because it's a word you don't use that often, says Lise Abrams, a University of Florida psychology professor who has studied word-finding problems for 20 years. But consciously using other words that start with the same syllable as the word you forgot may be helpful in the future. For example, if you intended to use the word denote but couldn't remember it, try frequently using words such as decide or debate, and it may help you recall the missing word the next time around.
Boost Brain Health
Brain training games are widely advertised, but the benefits are limited. Memory games may improve your memory slightly, and language games may boost your language ability a bit, but there's no proof yet of any major changes beyond that, says D.P. Devanand, director of geriatric psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. "There simply isn't enough evidence to recommend this strategy as a means to reverse memory impairment and decline," he says.
But research does prove that taking care of your overall brain health helps improve your brain function and memory. A healthy brain actually begins with your heart, Devanand says. Older people sometimes suffer small strokes without realizing it, so stopping smoking, lowering your cholesterol and getting hypertension treated can reduce that risk. "What's good for the heart is good for the brain," he says.
Add in exercise, but an occasional stroll isn't enough. You need to combine aerobic and resistance exercises, such as using weights, Devanand says. Or walk for 45 minutes at least three days a week, and push yourself to go faster. If that's too much, "any exercise or activity is better than none," Howard says.
Being social helps, because social interaction stimulates the brain. Ask a friend to join you on a walk or at the gym. Or consider volunteering for a cause you care about. A recent Johns Hopkins University study showed that seniors who tutored in Baltimore schools had improved brain performance.
Opioids or cannabis for pain management? Montel Williams has strong opinions
After being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis around 1999 and struggling with opioid addiction to manage the pain, Montel Williams says that finding cannabis was a game-changer.
Williams shares with Yahoo Lifestyle that he “took a journey down opioid lane for a year and a half, just trying to shut the pain down to the point that I was walking around in a pseudo-suicidal state.”
After two suicide attempts, Williams decided to turn his diagnosis from a “death sentence” into something he could “thrive at.”
He said shifting from opioids to cannabis was what that turned his life around. “The journey that I took with cannabis — it changed my life,” he says.
Williams adds: “That was probably one of the greatest things that happened in my life because that made me understand that I don’t need to take a pill. I was able to function on a daily basis and still mitigate my pain.”
And he’s clearly onto something. An eye-opening study published in the Journal of the American Medical Associationcompared opioids, such as Vicodin and oxycodone, to non-opioid pain relievers, such as Tylenol and ibuprofen, to see whether the prescription drugs were better at treating chronic back, hip, or knee pain. Surprisingly, they were not.
In addition, a March 2018 study published in the European Journal of Internal Medicine found that cancer patients who participated in a medical marijuana treatment program for chronic pain found significant relief. The study revealed that nearly 96 percent reported an improvement in their condition, with the vast majority experiencing a dramatic reduction in pain, as well as lower levels of anxiety and depression.
Williams, who has relied on cannabis for 17 years, is not only an advocate for the drug, he also founded Lenitiv Labs, a medical cannabis company, to help others.
While he understands that cannabis isn’t for everyone, Williams believes the drug should be made available to anyone who might benefit from it. “For every person with MS, marijuana isn’t a savior,” he says. “If you’re a person who has no benefits and has found no benefits, I’m not trying to force it on you. But therefore, you shouldn’t be denying me the opportunity to do the same.”
Vitamin D reduces mortality
A normal intake of vitamin D can reduce the risk of death substantially in people with cardiovascular disease, a Norwegian study shows.
A study from the University of Bergen (UiB) concludes that people who have suffered from cardiovascular disease, and have a normal intake of vitamin D, reduce their risk of morality as a consequence of the disease by 30 per cent.
"We discovered that the right amount of vitamin D reduces the risk of death substantially. However, too much or too little increase the risk," says Professor Jutta Dierkes at the Department of Clinical Medicine, UiB, which lead the study.
The study followed as many as 4 000 patients with cardiovascular diseases from year 2000, for a period of 12 years. The average age of the participants was 62 years old at the start of the study.
The study showed that it is favourable to have blood values around 42 to 100 nmol/l. If you have higher or lower values, you are at greater risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.
According to Dierkes, it is difficult to give general a recommendation of how much vitamin D supplementation one should take.
"The optimal amount of vitamin D-supplement varies from one person to another. It depends where you live, and what kind of diet you have," Dierkes points out.
For example, the Nordic countries recommend an intake of 10 microgram per day from all vitamin D-sources, USA recommends 15 micrograms and Germany 20.
"Even if Norwegians receive less sun then the Germans, the Norwegians have more fish in their diet. Fish and cod liver oil are important sources to vitamin D during the winter, in addition to physical activities outdoors during the summer," Dierkes explains.
Dierkes advices all who have experienced cardiovascular diseases to measure their levels of vitamin D, so that these can be better regulated, and the need for supplements assessed. This can usually be done by your local doctor.
"It is, however, important to take in account that the levels vary seasonally A measurement in September will not show the same results as in January, in the Nordic countries."
"The levels in January or February are often lower because of the lack of sunlight, which induces the skin form to vitamin D," says Jutta Dierkes.
Healthy diet linked to lower hip-fracture risk in U.S. women
By Mary Gillis
(Reuters Health) - Eating an overall healthy diet is tied to a lower risk of hip fracture among women over age 50, a U.S. study suggests.
Researchers analyzed decades’ worth of dietary and health data for more than 100,000 U.S. men and women. They found that women who scored highest on the American Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI) scale were about 13 percent less likely to experience a hip fracture than those whose diets over time scored lowest on that quality measure.
There was no clear association between diet and hip fracture risk among men, the authors report in Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
“We often find differences between men and women when it comes to the effect of diet on osteoporosis and hip fractures,” said lead author Diane Feskanich of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston.
“Women have less bone to begin with and go through an early bone loss around menopause. Men lose bone more slowly and experience hip fractures - on average - at a later age. So, it is quite possible that diet may be more important in women for preserving bone,” she said in an email.
Past research has often focused on particular nutrients or certain foods when examining the effect of diet on osteoporosis and resulting hip fractures, Feskanich noted. In recent years, the emphasis has shifted towards examining eating patterns as a whole.
“This is important because we do not eat particular nutrients and foods in isolation,” she said. Thus, understanding the combination of nutrients and foods and how they interact may be more informative, she added, and may yield better advice on how people should eat, which may benefit not only bone health but many other conditions.
The researchers looked at data on 74,446 postmenopausal women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study between 1980 and 2012 and 36,602 men age 50 or older who took part in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study between 1986 and 2012. Both groups completed yearly health surveys plus questionnaires on diet every four years.
There were 2,143 hip fractures among the women and 603 among the men across the study period. (Fractures resulting from car crashes and other traumatic accidents were excluded from this calculation). Feskanich and colleagues rated the study participants’ diets over time according to three well-regarded scales of diet quality: The AHEI, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and The Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score. All three scales award points for fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and other healthy foods. Points are withheld or even deducted if a diet includes high levels of red and processed meats, sodium or sugar-laden beverages.
When they compared these diet-quality scores to the incidence of hip fractures over the years, the study team found a significant difference in risk between women who scored highest on the AHEI scale and those who scored lowest. There was a similar overall pattern among women based on their DASH and Alternative Mediterranean diet scores, but once researchers adjusted for other factors like body mass and physical activity, the difference was too small to rule out the possibility it was due to chance. Among women younger than 75, however, there were statistically meaningful differences in fracture risk tied to the highest versus lowest scores on all three diet indices.
Among the study’s limitations, the small number of hip fractures in men might have reduced the researchers’ ability to identify associations between fractures and diet. In addition, all the study participants in the analysis were white, which may make the results less generalizable to people of other ethnicities, the authors acknowledge.
The study was not a controlled experiment designed to prove that diet quality influences hip fracture risk directly. The study team adjusted for many other lifestyle and health factors that might play a role, and they note that people with higher diet-quality scores tended to have lower body mass and higher leisure time physical activity.
“Vitamins and minerals including calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K are essential for maintaining bone hardness and structure throughout the lifespan,” said Priya Khorana, an independent nutrition consultant in New York City who wasn’t involved in the study.
“Sure, bone integrity declines and composition weakens as people age, but this rate of decline can be attenuated with proper diets that include these key nutrients - among other foods,” she said in an email.
Diabetes Has Five Distinct Types, Not Two: Study
Most diabetes cases are split into two groups: type one and type two. A new study including nearly 15,000 diabetic patients suggests this decades-old distinction only tells part of the story. A new report divides diabetes mellitus into five separate conditions.
The advancement that could improve patient care. Because each group has different causes and complication risks, the authors of the study, published Thursday in the Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, believe the results are a “first step” towards precision medicine in diabetes.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar. Over time, it can lead to heart attack, limb amputation and blindness.
Almost 10 percent of the U.S. population—30.3 million people—has a form of diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Type 2 diabetes accounts for between 90 and 95 percent of these cases, and roughly 5 percent are type 1. Less common forms of the disorder include gestational diabetes and neonatal diabetes. Some diabetic patients use insulin to control their disorder. In the picture above, a medical assistant administers a insulin to a patient in New Dehli.
A complex picture
In type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks beta cells, which produce insulin. This malfunction leaves the body without enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels effectively.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when either the body does not produce enough of the hormone, or its insulin fails to work properly. Usually linked to obesity and a lack of exercise, type 2 diabetes may also have underlying genetic factors. Researchers analyzed data including long-term blood glucose control for 14,775 diabetic patients. They identified five genetically distinct diabetes subgroups. Three were classified as “severe”, while two were “mild.”
In the report, the authors identified these groups as clusters. The first cluster includes severe autoimmune diabetes, which is similar to traditional type 1. Patients with this form of diabetes are usually young and generally healthy but they struggle to make insulin as the result of an errant immune system.
Cluster 2 patients have what the authors call severe insulin-deficient diabetes. Similar to cluster 1 patients, this group includes young people of a healthy weight whose bodies do not produce insulin properly. The distinguishing feature in this cluster is that the problem is not triggered by a problem in the immune system. In addition, these patients have a higher risk of diabetic eye disease.
In cluster 3—severe insulin-resistant diabetes—patients are often overweight and their bodies have stopped responding properly to insulin. These patients are at a greater risk of kidney and liver disease. Clusters 4 and 5 include mild diabetes. The former group includes patients who are very overweight but whose metabolism functions more normally. The latter group of patients develop a milder form of diabetes at an older age than the other groups.
More effective treatment prospects
“More accurately diagnosing diabetes could give us valuable insights into how it will develop over time,” said lead author, Leif Groop, who studies diabetes and endocrinology at Lund University Diabetes Centre in Sweden, in a statement, “allowing us to predict and treat complications before they develop.”
Victoria Salem, who researches investigative medicine at Imperial College London, told the BBC that specialists have long recognized that type 1 and type 2 were not particularly accurate classifications. The new study, she said, could help lead scientists towards a diabetes cure by changing the way they approach future study. “What we need to start doing is thinking less about treating the end problem, which is high blood sugar, and more about what’s causing you to have your diabetes,” Salem said, according to the BBC. “Once we really understand that then we can start targeting the disease better with new drugs.”
The study did have limitations. Most notably, the population on which the findings are based does not necessarily represent the population of people diagnosed with the disease in real life. In the U.S., diabetes disproportionately affects Native Americans, Asian Indians and other ethnic minority groups. This paper was based in Scandinavian countries with relatively homogenous populations.
The CDC has an infographic that charts the symptomatic variances between the common cold and influenza, and the difference is more subtle than you might think. For instance, while sore throats, stuffy noses, and sneezing can be present in both viruses, they’re more common in colds than flus. Conversely, headaches, chills, and chest discomfort are more common in the flu.One telltale sign that you have the flu is the onset of symptoms, which come on abruptly in flu viruses as opposed to gradually with colds. In the end, colds and flus are both respiratory illnesses, and it can sometimes be difficult to tell the difference based on symptoms alone, the CDC says. Often, a lab test can tell you for sure.
Here's What a Doctor Has to Say About All That Protein You're Eating
High-protein, low-carb diets are often touted as magic cures for those who want to drop a little (or a lot) of extra weight. The Atkins rave of the early 2000s and the more recent hype around the Paleo lifestyle have driven a high-protein movement that gained momentum with media attention and celebrity endorsements. Though some research does suggest that high-protein diets lead to weight loss in the short term, the greater body of evidence indicates that in the long term, these diets may do more harm than good.
One recent study of 34 overweight women asked half the group to eat a typical weight-loss diet containing a standard amount of protein and the other half to follow an otherwise identical diet that contained 50 percent more protein than usual. Both groups succeeded in losing 10 percent of their body weight. But the high-protein group showed no increase in insulin sensitivity, a typical benefit of weight loss that can help decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In other words, the high-protein diet eliminated one of the major favorable side effects of weight loss.
Another much larger study raised even more concerns about the effects of high-protein diets. Researchers in Spain asked over 8,000 men and women - most of whom were already following a Mediterranean diet - to recall, in detail, their daily protein intake. Not only were those who consumed the most protein more likely to gain weight, but they were also twice as likely to die from cardiovascular causes and 48 percent more likely to die from cancer. In an even larger study, in which over 100,000 postmenopausal women were asked to self-report their daily diets, researchers noted that as protein intake increased, the incidence of heart failure doubled.
According to Amy Shapiro, MS, RD, CDN of Real Nutrition NYC, "Eating too much of any food group can be harmful to your health and diet goals. It's about balance." She also points out that Americans eat "way more" protein than they need to; although current recommendations state that the average woman should eat about 45 to 50 grams of protein per day, the typical American woman actually eats around 70 grams daily. And since many of the dangers of excessive dietary protein are thought to be due to animal protein, Shapiro said, "don't underestimate the power of plant protein. Plants provide adequate amounts of protein for any diet if eaten and combined correctly." As a doctor, I caution my patients against high-protein diets, as I do with any fad diets that are not supported by high-quality clinical studies. Long-term weight loss, and its attendant health benefits, comes from a diet containing a balanced breakdown of macronutrients. Don't overdo it on protein or any food group. Nicole Van Groningen, MD, is an internal medicine physician at the University of California, San Francisco.
Woman, 67, who battled blood cancer for five years 'recovers after treating it with TURMERIC' in the first recorded case of its kind
A woman who battled blood cancer for years without success finally halted the disease with turmeric, it has been reported.
Dieneke Ferguson is now leading a normal life after giving up on gruelling treatments that failed to stop it.
Doctors say her case is the first recorded instance in which a patient has recovered by using the spice after stopping conventional medical treatments.
With her myeloma spreading rapidly after three rounds of chemotherapy and four stem cell transplants, the 67-year-old began taking 8g of curcumin a day – one of the main compounds in turmeric.
The cancer, which has an average survival of just over five years, was causing increasing back pain and she had already had a second relapse
But it stabilized after Mrs Ferguson, from north London, came across the remedy on the internet in 2011 and decided to try it as a last resort.
The tablets are expensive – £50 for ten days – but as kitchen turmeric contains just 2 per cent curcumin it would be impossible to eat enough to get the same dose.
Mrs Ferguson, who was first diagnosed in 2007, continues to take curcumin without further treatment and her cancer cell count is negligible.
Her doctors, from Barts Health NHS Trust in London, wrote in the British Medical Journal Case Reports: ‘To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which curcumin has demonstrated an objective response in progressive disease in the absence of conventional treatment.’
The experts, led by Dr Abbas Zaidi, said some myeloma patients took dietary supplements alongside conventional treatment but ‘few, if any, use dietary supplementation as an alternative to standard antimyeloma therapy’.
ut they added: ‘In the absence of further antimyeloma treatment the patient plateaued and has remained stable for the past five years with good quality of life.’
Since the turn of the century, more than 50 studies have tested curcumin – the pigment in turmeric that gives it that bright yellow colour.
They suggest the spice can protect against several cancers, as well as Alzheimer’s, heart disease and depression.
It has also been shown to help speed recovery after surgery and effectively treat arthritis.
But although it is widely used in Eastern medicine, and has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and antiseptic effects, curcumin is not widely prescribed because it has never been tested in large-scale trials.
The doctors wrote that the ‘biological activity of curcumin is indeed remarkable’, including its ‘anti-proliferative effects in a wide variety of tumour cells’.
But Professor Jamie Cavenagh, one of the authors of the paper, stressed it may not work for all patients. He said: ‘A lot of my patients take curcumin at different stages of their treatment. I don’t object to it.
‘Dieneke’s is the best response I have observed and it is clear-cut because we had stopped all other treatment.’
Mrs Ferguson, who runs Hidden Art, a not-for-profit business helping artists market their work, is frustrated doctors cannot recommend the spice and wants more research carried out.
She said: ‘I hope my story will lead to more people finding out about the amazing health benefits of curcumin.’
Myeloma affects some 5,500 people in the UK every year, killing nearly 3,000.
It's Not Just A Cold, It's 'Sickness Behavior'
It's just a cold. But even though I know I'm not horribly ill, I feel this overwhelming need to skip work, ignore my family and retreat to the far corner of the sofa.
I'm not being a wimp, it turns out. Those feelings are a real thing called "sickness behavior," which is sparked by the body's response to infection. The same chemicals that tell the immune system to rush in and fend off invading viruses also tell us to slow down; skip the eating, drinking and sex; shun social interactions; and rest.
"Those messages are so powerful they can't be ignored," says Philip Chen, a rhinologist at the University of Texas, San Antonio. But that doesn't mean we don't try. Symptoms like a stuffy nose are obvious, Chen notes, but we're less aware that changes in mood and behavior are also part of our bodies' natural response to infection.
It might behoove us to pay attention. There is plenty of evidence that having a cold impairs mood, alertness and working memory and that brain performance falls off with even minor symptoms.
But for most people, having a cold does not equal "take the week off." And that means many people work sick, even when it can put others in danger.
A 2015 survey of food workers found that half "always" or "frequently" went to work while sick. And a survey of doctors and other health care providers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia found that even though 95 percent of them thought showing up to work sick puts patients at risk, 83 percent of them did it anyway. Colds were the most common cause of working sick.
The vast majority of health care providers said they were worried about letting down colleagues or patients if they stayed home. Other reasons included fear of being ostracized by their peers or because other people showed up to work sick. "We all feel pressured to deny our own needs (often giving up meals, bathroom breaks, and yes, caring for our own illnesses) in order to meet the high pressure/high demand/productivity of the health care system," one doctor wrote.
And this is despite the fact that numerous outbreaks in health care facilities have been caused by infected workers.
More than half of the people in the Children's Hospital survey, which was published in JAMA Pediatrics in 2015, said they didn't know how sick is too sick to go to work. I share that confusion. Am I just grossing out my co-workers with my hacking and wheezing, or am I endangering their health? Schools and day care centers are also all over the map on this question, though pediatricians point out that most germs are spread before someone starts exhibiting symptoms and that the key question should be whether a child feels well enough to participate and learn.
Animals also exhibit sickness behavior; a pet that stops eating and becomes lethargic is almost certainly a sick pet. Scientists have come to think of this as not just an annoying side effect of illness but a well-evolved survival strategy: hide out, avoid predators and direct energy to fighting off infection. But it's also a strategy that animals will abandon when there is a more pressing need. One study found that sick rodent moms would neglect their pups until the temperature dropped to the point that the pups were imperiled, at which point they went back into mom mode.
"That makes evolutionary sense," says Eric Shattuck, a lecturer in evolutionary medicine and anthropology at the University of Texas, San Antonio. "Being sick is a temporary state. If you can afford to lose the opportunity to take care of your infants or lose a mating opportunity, then you can act on the sickness behavior cues without too much of a loss."
Shattuck has been trying to figure out how people interpret the signals of sickness behavior and how we choose to act on them. It looks like the answer will be: not very well. When he asked students how they respond to feeling sick, "Some people are super-hypochondriac; the minute they're feeling a little under the weather, they're bundled up." But by and large, he says, people try to ignore the cues of sickness behavior unless they are so sick they can't get out of bed. "There's what I suspect is a very cultural pressure to perform and to perform well, especially for what we consider minor illnesses."
Even when our bodies are saying, "Hey listen, it would be really great if you would take a rest."
How to Prevent Blood Sugar and Triglyceride Spikes after Meals
Within hours of eating an unhealthy meal, we can get a spike in inflammation, crippling our artery function, thickening our blood, and causing a fight-or-flight nerve response. But there are foods we can eat at every meal to counter this reaction.
Knowing how your blood sugar responds to certain foods could be a key to weight loss, according to the researchers behind a new diet book.
Drs. Eran Segal and Eran Elinav of Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science tested blood sugar levels in 1,000 people after every meal for one week. They found that foods that created a healthy response in some participants produced an unhealthy blood sugar spike in other participants.
The key to weight loss, according to Segal and Elinav, is watching how your blood sugar reacts to different foods.
“For years, we've been trying to search for that silver-bullet diet that would work for everybody and we've been miserably failing,” Segal told ABC News. “And that's because the best diet for each person really has to be tailored to that individual.”
There is not yet any "evidence-based science" to support the practice of blood sugar monitoring for weight loss, according to ABC News' chief medical correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton, who also holds an M.S. in nutrition.
"I completely agree with the fact there is no one size fits all for a diet. You have to find what works for you," Ashton said today on "Good Morning America." "But at this time there is no rigorous, peer-reviewed, evidence-based science to support the practice of checking your blood sugar after you eat."
Ashton also stressed that the concept of using blood sugar levels to create an individualized approach to a diet applies to non-diabetics only.
The program laid out in Segal’s and Elinav’s book, “The Personalized Diet,” focuses on finding which carbohydrates are best for each person. Determining that, they say, requires testing your blood sugar via a finger prick after meals.
“Our solution gives you a way to find out which carbohydrates would actually be best for you to integrate into what we believe would be a healthy diet for you,” Segal said.
Segal and Elinav say their algorithm, based on blood sugar reactions, determines what foods you should avoid and what foods to add to your diet.
Some people, for instance, may be able to eat white bread, instead of wheat, while others may need to spread fats like avocado, olive oil or butter on the bread.
“What we were surprised to find out was just like any other food, there is no such thing as a good bread,” Elinav said. “The response to bread was completely individualized.”
Other foods sometimes not associated with diets, like cheese, are fine to eat for weight los
“When you don't have carbohydrates, those foods will not spike your blood sugar levels,” Segal said.
Segal and Elinav also found that traditional pre-competition foods for athletes like bananas and dates, both high in carbohydrates, may actually cause more fatigue.
When it comes to achieving weight loss, Ashton recommends taking an approach that is "safe, simple and sustainable."
She also added a fourth item to the list, saying, "You have to watch the sugar."
s, as long as they are not paired with a carbohydrate, according to the pair’s research.
Calcium and vitamin D supplements may not lower risk of fracture, study finds
Taking calcium and vitamin D supplements may not actually lower fracture risks for elder adults living independently, according to a new analysis of past studies published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The researchers looked at 51,145 participants from 33 clinical trials and found that there was not a significant difference in the risk of hip fractures for those who used calcium supplements, vitamin D supplements, or both, compared to those who took a placebo or no supplements at all.
The participants were all adults who were over 50 years old, not living in a nursing home, not on anti-osteoporosis medications and had no history of steroid-induced bone breakdown.
"No significant associations were found between calcium, vitamin D, or combined calcium and vitamin D supplements and the incidence of nonvertebral, vertebral or total fractures," researchers added as part of their secondary outcomes.
In addition, further analyses found these results to be "generally consistent" regardless of the calcium or vitamin D dose, sex, fracture history, and dietary calcium intake.
Researchers only looked at supplement studies and did not assess studies that looked at dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D.
The chances of breaking a hip increase with age, and approximately 95 percent of hip fractures are caused by falling sideways, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
All of this is not to say that calcium and vitamin D don't have value. Adults need at least 1,000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D daily. But the best way to get these nutrients is through food. Dairy products such as cheese, milk, and yogurt are rich sources, says Lipman.
Broccoli, collard greens, kale, canned salmon and sardines (eaten with the soft bones), and white beans are non-dairy sources. (People who don't eat dairy should talk to their doctor about how best to get these nutrients.)
Good sources of vitamin D are mushrooms, eggs, fortified milk, soy beverages, and salmon. Our bodies also make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to sunlight, so experts suggest getting 10 minutes of sunshine per day.
Exercise is important, too.
To prevent hip fractures, the CDC recommends talking to your doctor, getting screened for osteoporosis, doing strength and balance exercises, and having your eyes checked. In addition, the CDC recommends taking simple steps to make your home safer, including getting rid of things you could trip over, putting railings on both sides of any set of stairs and making sure your home has lots of light.
Leaving the house linked to longevity in older adults
By Carolyn Crist
(Reuters Health) - For older people, getting out of the house regularly may contribute to a longer life - and the effect is independent of medical problems or mobility issues, according to new research from Israel.
For study participants in their 70s, 80s and 90s, the frequency with which they left the house predicted how likely they were to make it to the next age milestone, researchers report in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
“The simple act of getting out of the house every day propels people into engagement with the world,” said lead author Dr. Jeremy Jacobs of Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem in a phone interview.
“We saw similar benefits that you’d expect from treating blood pressure or cholesterol with medicine,” Jacobs said. “Social factors are important in the process of aging.”
Jacobs and colleagues analyzed data on 3,375 adults at ages 70, 78, 85 and 90 who were participating in the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.
Based on their responses to questions about how often they left the house, participants were grouped into three categories: frequently (six or seven days per week), often (two to five times per week) or rarely (once a week or less).
People who left the house frequently at any of the ages examined were significantly more likely to live to the next age group. For example, among people who left the house frequently, often or rarely at age 78, 71 percent, 67 percent and 43 percent, respectively, survived to age 85. Among people who left the house frequently, often or rarely at age 90, 64 percent, 56 percent and 38 percent, respectively, made it to 95.
At all ages, people who left home less frequently tended to be male, less educated and to have higher rates of loneliness, financial difficulties, poor health, fatigue, poor sleep, less physical activity, bladder and bowel problems, history of falling in the last year, fear of falling, visual and hearing impairments, chronic pain and frailty.
The link between leaving the house and longevity, however, remained after the researchers accounted for medical or mobility issues such as chronic pain, vision or hearing impairment, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and kidney disease.
“We included people who had mobility difficulties, so this isn’t just about people moving their legs up and down,” Jacobs said. “That’s quite exciting. There’s something about interacting with the world outside that helps.”
The study did not examine the effect on participants of leaving the house, such as their sense of well-being or purpose. It also didn’t look at environmental factors that might foster or prevent going out, the authors note. Future studies will look at the oldest cohort (age 95) as they reach 98 to 100 in coming years, Jacobs said. He and his colleagues are also interested in the role that optimism, social engagement and environmental aspects such as community sidewalks play in longer life.
“Studies show that if you create walkways that are friendly for walking, people start walking,” he said. “In neighborhoods with older adults, walkways with benches could encourage them to get out of the house and be social.”
Researchers are interested in finding ways to encourage adults to leave their home more and to develop systems that help them do that, said Dawn Mackey of Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada, who wasn’t involved in the study.
“It may be helpful for older adults and their caregivers to make plans to go out of the house more often,” she told Reuters Health by email. “And try to build up to going out of the house every day.” They could plan these outings with these questions: When will it work best for me to leave the house? Where do I want to go? Is there someone to go out with or to meet when I am out? What are my options if the weather is bad or if I’m not feeling well one day?
“The well-being of our older adults is of paramount importance for public health and economic viability,” she said. “Going out of the house is an important way to maintain mobility and social engagement and ward off loneliness.”
Green leafy vegetables may make your brain seem 11 years younger
By Melissa Healy / Los Angeles Times
Look into your salad bowl and think: If a fountain of cognitive youth were flowing in there, would you return every day?
In research that gives new meaning to the expression “salad days,” a study published Wednesday finds that older people who ate at least one serving of leafy greens a day had a slower rate of decline on tests of memory and thinking skills than did people who rarely or never ate these vegetables.
The study was published in the journal Neurology.
After almost five years, regular consumers of such veggies as kale, spinach, collard greens and lettuce enjoyed a mental edge that was the equivalent of 11 years in age.
To be sure, the top tier of leafy-vegetable consumers started with cognitive scores that were slightly higher than those in the bottom tier. That’s probably a testament to the power of lifelong eating patterns.
But over five years, the pattern of mental aging differed markedly in these two groups. Study participants who ate an average of roughly 1.3 servings of leafy greens a day experienced a decline in test performance that was about half as steep as that of participants whose daily consumption was near-zero.
Those stark differences were evident even after the researchers took account of a host of factors that are known to affect mental aging, including age, gender, education, exercise, participation in cognitive activities, smoking and consumption of seafood and alcohol.
Let’s say you and your neighbor are both 75 and similar in most every way: You both completed the same amount of school, take regular walks together, don’t smoke, and gather with friends over an occasional beer.
But while you enjoy a little more than a bowl of greens every day, your pal barely touches the stuff.
This long-running study would predict that at 75, your memory and thinking skills are a notch stronger than your neighbor’s. Over the next five years, hers will decline twice as fast as yours.
By the time you’re both 80, a battery of exercises that test several types of memory, as well as the speed and flexibility of your thinking, may show that your mental age is typical of a 75-year-old’s. Meanwhile, your neighbor’s performance on the same cognitive tests may look more like that of an 86-year-old.
“It’s almost unbelievable,” said Martha Morris, the senior author of the study who studies nutrition and brain health at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. “Eating these leafy greens was independently associated with slower cognitive decline. That tells you this single food group contains so many nutrients it could be brain-protective.”
Morris and her colleagues identified a small cluster of specific nutrients that appear to offer anti-aging benefits. The leafy greens that participants were asked about are generally rich in vitamin E, folic acid, vitamin K1, lutein and beta-carotene. While inconsistent, research has suggested that some or all of these nutrients may play some role in protecting the brain against inflammation, the accumulation of toxic proteins such as beta-amyloid, and neuronal damage and death.
For lifelong avoiders of leafy greens, the study doesn’t show that a late-life conversion to kale salads and spinach shakes will keep dementia at bay. But Morris said she thinks about nutrition the same way she thinks about exercise.
“You do get immediate benefits from eating healthy foods and exercising,” she said. “And you get long-term benefits.”
Dr. Lon Schneider, a specialist in dementia at the University of Southern California’s Keck School of Medicine, says the new study offers important insights into which nutrients in the Mediterranean diet help support health in aging. But it also underscores the complexity of dementia and cognitive aging — and the absence of a “silver bullet” to counter them.
“Dementia is a complex illness, as so many chronic illnesses are,” Schneider said. “It’s clearly not caused by one thing, and surely its onset and severity are not caused by one thing. This shows the environment is really important. Diet matters.”
10 minutes of exercise gives brain burst of energy
LONDON, Ontario — For students struggling to focus on that term paper or office workers who need an extra creative boost when tackling a difficult project, a new study finds that a 10-minute burst of exercise can provide a quick mental jumpstart to get the brainwaves moving.
Researchers at Western University in Canada recruited a group of healthy young adults to do one of two activities: either sit down and read a magazine for 10 minutes, or pedal at a moderate-to-vigorous pace on an exercise bike for the same length of time.
After completing their tasks, participants were hooked up to eye-tracking devices that logged the their reaction times during a challenging eye movement task. The task tapped into the frontal lobe of the brain, an area known for overseeing executive functions like problem solving, decision making, and judgment.
“Those who had exercised showed immediate improvement. Their responses were more accurate and their reaction times were up to 50 milliseconds shorter than their pre-exercise values. That may seem minuscule but it represented a 14-per-cent gain in cognitive performance in some instances,” says study co-author Matthew Heath, a kinesiology professor and supervisor in the university’s graduate program for neuroscience, in a news release.
In other words, Heath says that the results showed that just 10 minutes of aerobic exercise can provide a significant spark for the brain — enough to help people focus and perform better on challenging assignments.
“I always tell my students before they write a test or an exam or go into an interview — or do anything that is cognitively demanding – they should get some exercise first,” he adds. “Our study shows the brain’s networks like it. They perform better.”
The researchers hope that in addition to being useful for students or workers, the results may also benefit less mobile elderly adults battling dementia or similar conditions.
“Some people can’t commit to a long-term exercise regime because of time or physical capacity. This shows that people can cycle or walk briskly for a short duration, even once, and find immediate benefits,” he says.
If you’re wondering how long the mental burst lasts, Heath is now working on a new experiment to answer that very question.
The results for his completed study were published in the Jan. 2018 edition of the journal Neuropsychologia.
Rigorous diet can put type 2 diabetes into remission, study finds
Some people with Type 2 diabetes were able to put the disease in remission without medication by following a rigorous diet plan, according to a study published today in the Lancet medical journal.
"Our findings suggest that even if you have had type 2 diabetes for 6 years, putting the disease into remission is feasible," Michael Lean, a professor from the University of Glasgow in Scotland who co-led the study said in a statement.
The researchers looked at 149 participants who have had Type 2 diabetes for up to six years and monitored them closely as they underwent a liquid diet that provided only 825 to 853 calories per day for three to five months. The participants were then reintroduced to solid food and maintained a structured diet until the end of the yearlong study.
The study comes at a time when more than 100 million American adults are living with diabetes or prediabetes, according to a report released earlier this year by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prediabetes was defined by the CDC as a condition that if not treated often leads to Type 2 diabetes within five years.
In addition, approximately 90 to 95 percent of the more than 30 million Americans living with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes, according to the CDC.
Roy Taylor, a professor at Newcastle University in the U.K. who co-led the study said in a statement announcing the findings that the impact that diet and lifestyle has on diabetes are "rarely discussed."
"Rather than addressing the root cause, management guidelines for type 2 diabetes focus on reducing blood sugar levels through drug treatments. Diet and lifestyle are touched upon but diabetes remission by cutting calories is rarely discussed," Taylor said.
He added that the participants were not asked to increase their physical activity at all, but only asked to modify their diet.
"A major difference from other studies is that we advised a period of dietary weight loss with no increase in physical activity, but during the long-term follow up increased daily activity is important," Taylor said.
Taylor also wrote that the study offered a more universal approach to reversing diabetes compared to undergoing bariatric surgery, which can achieve type 2 diabetes remission for some people, but "is more expensive and risky, and is only available to a small number of patients."
Healthy mitochondria could stop Alzheimer's
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and neurodegeneration worldwide. A major hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of toxic plaques in the brain, formed by the abnormal aggregation of a protein called beta-amyloid inside neurons.
Still without cure, Alzheimer's poses a significant burden on public health systems. Most treatments focus on reducing the formation of amyloid plaques, but these approaches have been inconclusive. As a result, scientists are now searching for alternative treatment strategies, one of which is to consider Alzheimer's as a metabolic disease.
Taking this line of thought, Johan Auwerx's lab at EPFL looked at mitochondria, which are the energy-producing powerhouses of cells, and thus central in metabolism. Using worms and mice as models, they discovered that boosting mitochondria defenses against a particular form of protein stress, enables them to not only protect themselves, but to also reduce the formation of amyloid plaques.
During normal aging and age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's, cells face increasing damage and struggle to protect and replace dysfunctional mitochondria. Since mitochondria provide energy to brain cells, leaving them unprotected in Alzheimer's disease favors brain damage, giving rise to symptoms like memory loss over the years.
The scientists identified two mechanisms that control the quality of mitochondria: First, the "mitochondrial unfolded protein response" (UPRmt), which protects mitochondria from stress stimuli. Second, mitophagy, a process that recycles defective mitochondria. Both these mechanisms are the key to delaying or preventing excessive mitochondrial damage during disease.
While we have known for a while that mitochondria are dysfunctional in the brains of Alzheimer's patients, this is the first evidence that they actually try to fight the disease by boosting quality control pathways. "These defense and recycle pathways of the mitochondria are essential in organisms, from the worm C. elegans all the way to humans," says Vincenzo Sorrentino, first author of the paper. "So we decided to pharmacologically activate them."
The team started by testing well-established compounds, such as the antibiotic doxycycline and the vitamin nicotinamide riboside (NR), which can turn on the UPRmt and mitophagy defense systems in a worm model (C. elegans) of Alzheimer's disease. The health, performance and lifespan of worms exposed to the drugs increased remarkably compared with untreated worms. Plaque formation was also significantly reduced in the treated animals.
And most significantly, the scientists observed similar improvements when they turned on the same mitochondrial defense pathways in cultured human neuronal cells, using the same drugs.
The encouraging results led the researchers to test NR in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Just like C. elegans, the mice saw a significant improvement of mitochondrial function and a reduction in the number of amyloid plaques. But most importantly, the scientists observed a striking normalization of the cognitive function in the mice. This has tremendous implications from a clinical perspective.
According to Johan Auwerx, tackling Alzheimer's through mitochondria could make all the difference. "So far, Alzheimer's disease has been considered to be mostly the consequence of the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain," he says. "We have shown that restoring mitochondrial health reduces plaque formation - but, above all, it also improves brain function, which is the ultimate objective of all Alzheimer's researchers and patients."
The strategy provides a novel therapeutic approach to slow down the progression of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, and possibly even in other disorders such as Parkinson's disease, which is also characterized by profound mitochondrial and metabolic defects.
The approach remains to be tested in human patients. "By targeting mitochondria, NR and other molecules that stimulate their 'defense and recycle' systems could perhaps succeed where so many drugs, most of which aim to decrease amyloid plaque formation, have failed," says Vincenzo Sorrentino.
Researchers Find New Link Between Red Meat and Heart Disease
If you’re concerned about heart disease, here’s another reason to consider setting down your steak knife. A new study adds to a growing body of literature linking red meat consumption with increased heart disease risk.
Researchers have found that when we eat red meat, there is a set of reactions mediated by microbes in our gut. These gut microbe reactions are triggered by carnitine, a nutrient found in red meat. The study found that these reactions, which were previously unrecognized, contribute to the development of heart disease.
A previous study linked carnitine to the development of narrowing or hardening of the arteries, also called atherosclerosis, but this latest research took it a step further. It uncovered more details about a chain of reactions generated when microbes in the gut digest the carnitine in red meat.
Dr. Hazen says the results help us better understand how eating red meat is related to heart disease. It also allows researchers to develop better tools to fight it.
“We are now a step closer to developing drugs or tools to retard or block the development of heart disease by this pathway,” he says.
Past findings related to red meat and heart disease risk include:
Discovery of a biomarker that identifies risk of heart disease: trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). There is a global hunt in progress using cardiovascular fingerprints — scientists call them biomarkers — to identify the risk of heart disease. The most common biomarker for heart disease is the blood test for cholesterol levels, but a more recent example is C reactive protein (CRP). In 2011, researchers discovered TMAO, which is made by microbes that live in your gut. Read the full story: Finding Heart Risk Through the Gut (Video).
A study of middle-aged Seventh-day Adventists, a group with historically lower rates of cardiovascular disease than the general population, suggests that a more vegetarian dietary pattern may be associated with reduced mortality and increased longevity.
Study finds consuming nuts strengthens brainwave function
A new study by researchers at Loma Linda University Health has found that eating nuts on a regular basis strengthens brainwave frequencies associated with cognition, healing, learning, memory and other key brain functions. An abstract of the study—which was presented in the nutrition section of the Experimental Biology 2017 meetings in San Diego, California, and published in the FASEB Journal.
In the study titled "Nuts and brain: Effects of eating nuts on changing electroencephalograph brainwaves," researchers found that some nuts stimulated some brain frequencies more than others. Pistachios, for instance, produced the greatest gamma wave response, which is critical for enhancing cognitive processing, information retention, learning, perception and rapid eye movement during sleep. Peanuts, which are actually legumes, but were still part of the study, produced the highest delta response, which is associated with healthy immunity, natural healing, and deep sleep.
The study's principal investigator, Lee Berk, DrPH, MPH, associate dean for research at the LLU School of Allied Health Professions, said that while researchers found variances between the six nut varieties tested, all of them were high in beneficial antioxidants, with walnuts containing the highest antioxidant concentrations of all.
Prior studies have demonstrated that nuts benefit the body in several significant ways: protecting the heart, fighting cancer, reducing inflammation and slowing the aging process. But Berk said he believes too little research has focused on how they affect the brain.
"This study provides significant beneficial findings by demonstrating that nuts are as good for your brain as they are for the rest of your body," Berk said, adding that he expects future studies will reveal that they make other contributions to the brainand nervous system as well.
Berk—who is best known for four decades of research into the health benefits of happiness and laughter, as well as a cluster of recent studies on the antioxidants in dark chocolate—assembled a team of 13 researchers to explore the effects of regular nut consumption on brainwave activity.
The team developed a pilot study using consenting subjects who consumed almonds, cashews, peanuts, pecans, pistachios and walnuts. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were taken to measure the strength of brainwave signals. EEG wave band activity was then recorded from nine regions of the scalp associated with cerebral cortical function. Nuts and Brain Health: Nuts Increase EEG Power Spectral Density (μV&[sup2]) for Delta Frequency (1–3Hz) and Gamma Frequency (31–40 Hz) Associated with Deep Meditation, Empathy, Healing, as well as Neural Synchronization, Enhanced Cognitive Processing, Recall, and Memory All Beneficial For Brain Health.
Most Medical Checkups Miss a 30-Second Test That Could Save Your Life
Think back to the last time you visited a doctor's office. Certain things seem to happen by rote. They weigh you. They measure your height. And they nearly always slap a blood pressure cuff around one arm and take a reading.
Right there is where medical providers usually make one of their biggest mistakes. Having taken one blood pressure reading, they go on to the next step in their examination process. They should stop, and spend a few moments testing your other arm as well.
Why bother with two annoying blood pressure tests when most doctors consider one to be sufficient? Because the readings in your two arms might be different. A few points' difference is normal. But a difference of 10 points or more in either the "top" (systolic) number or the "bottom" (diastolic) one could signal an underlying problem that might otherwise go undetected.
What kind of problem? In younger people, it might mean that one of your arteries is being squeezed, perhaps by a muscle. In older people it likely means that one or more of your arteries are blocked, meaning you are at greater risk for heart disease, stroke, and dementia among other things.
Five years ago, researchers in the U.K. found that a 15-point difference in the top number between arms could translate into a 70 percent greater likelihood of dying from cardiovascular disease. Since then, some European nations and some medical organizations in the U.S. have added both-arm-testing to their guidelines, but it's still rare for any nurse or doctor to actually do it. Most seem unaware of the significance that different readings between the two arms could carry.
Having read about the UK study a few years back, I've been asking for two arm readings whenever I encounter a routine blood pressure check. It usually seems like an unexpected request, but it's always granted, and usually adds about 30 seconds to the time it takes to give me the exam. I believe those 30 seconds are very well spent. You never know what you might find.
Spirulina: Little known cancer-fighting sea algae
In the field of nutrition, spirulina is categorized as the best discovery yet of the 21st century (10). It is the wide array of dense nutrients contained in spirulina that has been shown in several studies to provide pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, as well as cancer-preventative effects.
Today, much of the world around us can cause carcinogenic mutations from the toxins we absorb through our skin to the chemicals contained in our food. Supplementing spirulina into your diet is an effective way to combat the damaging effects of toxins accumulating in our bodies. One of the anticancer effects is attributed to its ability to act as an immunostimulatory agent or a substance which enhances the immune response to defend against abnormal and invasive cell growth. Researchers have shown that spirulina is able to inhibit the growth and development of tumors resulting from overexposure to UVB rays from the sun. In the study, spirulina was shown to promote healthy gene function, inhibit free radical producing enzymes, reduce inflammation and limit DNA damage. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common form of liver cancer which may be readily influenced by another pigment compound found in spirulina, C-Phycocyanin (C-Pc). C-Pc is found to reduce the rate at which cancerous liver cells multiply. Furthermore, this anti-mutagenic compound stimulates apoptosis in developed cancer cells and may reduce tumor mass.
Individuals with the genetic condition phenylketonuria (PKU) will have trouble digesting the amino acids in spirulina and should avoid it. Spirulina has blood-thinning properties, so it should be avoided by individuals on anticoagulant medications.
Some individuals with leaky gut, food sensitivities, and autoimmunity do not do well with spirulina. If you notice an increase in inflammatory conditions when consuming this, then it is best to avoid.
Be sure to look for a certified organic as other types can be contaminated or have nitrate compounds as additives. You can get this in combination with other greens in a green superfood powder or with other detoxification herbs in a capsule-based supplement.
Most experts believe it is best to get it on its own and take 1-2 tablespoons daily. If fighting cancer, take 3-4 tablespoons daily.
Decongestant 'highly effective' at starving cancer cells
Cancer researchers seeking non-toxic alternatives to harmful chemotherapy are reporting a highly significant result for a humble cold remedy. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) is routinely used as a dietary supplement and as a decongestant given to children to ward off a cold.
Now, clinical trials in the US indicate the cheap, over-the-counter drug, is a first rate inhibitor of the tumour stroma, a cell compartment which is fundamental to the spread of cancer. The results, published in Seminars in Oncology, confirm a long-held theory that cancer cells are being sustained and strengthened by the presence of MCT4, a protein which 'brings them' energy, in the form of lactate, from neighbouring cells.
Patients taking high dosages of NAC saw their levels of the 'transporter' protein fall by more than 80%, drastically reducing the ability of the cancer cells to feed off neighbouring cells.
Professor Federica Sotgia of the Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Salford, UK, said, "In cell cultures in the laboratory, we had seen a near complete reduction in MCT4, but to achieve such a substantial result in breast cancer patients is extremely exciting indeed."
The team, which includes Professor Michael Lisanti, of the University of Salford and US-based Ubaldo Martinez-Outschoorn, MD, conducted a 'window trial' on 12 patients awaiting surgery for breast cancer at The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center (Thomas Jefferson University), in Philadelphia.
Patients were given maximum daily dosages of the over-the-counter drug for three weeks between diagnosis and surgery. Tumour tissue biopsies were then taken before and during surgery and key biomarkers, including MCT4 and K167, were measured post-surgery. K167 levels fell by 25% and MCT4 levels were reduced by approximately 80%.
"High levels of stromal MCT4 are extremely worrying, as they are linked to aggressive cancer behaviour and poor overall survival, so this is very encouraging result," explained Professor Lisanti. "Our idea was to repurpose an inexpensive FDA-approved drug, to examine if its antioxidant properties could target the feeding behaviour of cancer cells. To be able to inhibit MCT4 protein expression, in a non-toxic way, is huge step forward."
The results are published in the clinical journal Seminars in Oncology (Articles In Press): "Pilot study demonstrating metabolic and anti-proliferative effects of in vivo anti-oxidant supplementation with N-Acetylcysteine in Breast Cancer."
Three coffees a day linked to more health benefits than harm: study
LONDON (Reuters) - People who drink three to four cups of coffee a day are more likely to see health benefits than harm, experiencing lower risks of premature death and heart disease than those who abstain, scientists said on Wednesday.
The research, which collated evidence from more than 200 previous studies, also found coffee consumption was linked to lower risks of diabetes, liver disease, dementia and some cancers.
Three or four cups a day confer the greatest benefit, the scientists said, except for women who are pregnant or who have a higher risk of suffering fractures.
Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed drinks worldwide. To better understand its effects on health, Robin Poole, a public health specialist at Britain's University of Southampton, led a research team in an "umbrella review" of 201 studies based on observational research and 17 studies based on clinical trials across all countries and all settings.
"Umbrella reviews" synthesize previous pooled analyses to give a clearer summary of diverse research on a particular topic.
"Coffee drinking appears safe within usual patterns of consumption," Pool's team concluded in their research, published in the BMJ British medical journal late on Wednesday.
Drinking coffee was consistently linked with a lower risk of death from all causes and from heart disease. The largest reduction in relative risk of premature death is seen in people consuming three cups a day, compared with non-coffee drinkers.
Drinking more than three cups a day was not linked to harm, but the beneficial effects were less pronounced.
Coffee was also associated with a lower risk of several cancers, including prostate, endometrial, skin and liver cancer, as well as type 2 diabetes, gallstones and gout, the researchers said. The greatest benefit was seen for liver conditions such as cirrhosis of the liver.
Exactly How Much Turmeric to Have a Day to Reap Its Anti-Inflammatory Benefits
Turmeric root has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine and is most noticeable as the bright yellow coloring in curry powder. "Its ability as an anti-inflammatory agent first gained attention in the study of people who ate curry at least once a week and who had very little risk of Alzheimer's disease, in Indian and Indonesian studies, despite these populations having a high percentage of diabetes," said Dr. Steven Gundry MD, one of the world's top heart surgeons and author of The Plant Paradox. "It was determined that two of the spices in curry powder made all the difference: turmeric and black pepper.
"Turmeric, in turn, became known as the wonder spice. "Turmeric is recommended for many patients with inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune conditions like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cancers. Curcumin is the compound found in turmeric," said Atlanta-based integrative medicine physician Dr. Bindiya Gandhi. Arguably, the most powerful aspect of curcumin is its ability to control inflammation. "The journal Oncogene published the results of a study that evaluated several anti-inflammatory compounds and found that aspirin and ibuprofen are least effective, while curcumin is among the most effective anti-inflammatory compounds in the world," said Dr. Josh Axe, DNM, CNS, DC, bestselling author of Eat Dirt. "This news should have reached every household in the world after the study was conducted, because inflammation puts people at risk for almost every disease process known to man," he said.
You can find turmeric in powder culinary spice form and in its whole root form, as well as in tincture, tablets, and capsules. "A good starting dose for its anti-inflammatory benefits is 400 to 600 mg of standardized powder or curcumin turmeric extract three times a day as tolerated," Dr. Gandhi said. "Cut-root dose is 1.5g-3g per day, dried powdered root 1g-3g per day, and tincture (1:2) 15-30 drops up to four times per day, as mentioned by University of Maryland Medical Center."
When taking it for GI issues, you need to find a formula with black pepper or piperine in it, because it is better absorbed. The black pepper stops the turmeric from breaking down as quickly, which keeps it in your system longer. When taking it for any autoimmune issues, you can take the turmeric by itself.
Caution with turmeric should be noted since it can act as a blood thinner and should be avoided before surgery. It can also cause GI upset in some patients and can reduce blood sugars in diabetic patients. "It can increase gallbladder contraction, which is not a good idea for patients suffering with gallstones. I discourage my patients trying to conceive [from taking] it since it can actually act as contraception and advise my nursing and pregnant mothers to use it with caution since it may stimulate uterine contractions," said Dr. Gandhi, who encourages patients to cook with it daily for anti-inflammatory effects, but encourages a supplement if looking for a higher dosage.